Lecture notes:

Here are brief lecture notes, as they appeared on the screen during class. REMEMBER- these notes are not necessarily complete, and cannot be used to replace class attendance and your own notes!!!!!           

Current Lecture notes: (click on date to go to notes)

Week One:                                7/16/07          7/17/07         7/18/07          7/19/07

Week Two:           7/23/07 Test 1            7/24/07         7/25/07          7/26/07       

Week Three:                   7/30/07          7/31/07          8/1/07 Test 2          8/2/07

Week Four:              8/6/07          8/7/07         8/8/07          8/9/07 Test 3             
 

NEW LECTURES

7/16/07 Introduction and Experimental Methods

I. What is psychology?
    A. Study of human behavior
        1. Why? Find out what humans do
        2. Determine what is normal or abnormal?
        3. Only human behavior? Animals
    B. Psychology is a science first!
        1. Use scientific methods
        2. Second purpose: improve human and animal conditions
    C. Scientific method
        1. Start with an hypothesis
        2. Test it
        3. If it works: accept it; if it doesn’t work- make a new hypothesis
        4. Define our observation methods and tools

II. Major study areas of psychology
    A. Sub disciplines
        1. Neuroscience
        2. Sensation and perception
        3. Learning and cognition
        4. Developmental
        5. Personality
        6. Social interactions
        7. Psychopathology
        8. Treatments: Therapies

    B. Who are psychologists
        1. Degree in psychology or a related field
            a. Psychology
            b. Education
            c. Counseling
        2. At least a master’s degree to practice or do research
            a. MS
            b. MA
            c. MSN
            d. MSW: social work
        3. Doctorate
            a. PhD: primarily a research degree, although many clinicians have a PhD
            b. PsyD: practitioners doctorate
        4. Neither MS or PhD/PsyD can prescribe ANY medication!
        5. Psychiatrists or MDs can only prescribe
            a. Psychiatrist is an MD with special training in psych
            b. Primary resp: handing out drugs
 

III. History of Psychology
    A. Psychology began as a hybrid between philospophy, religion and physiology
        1. Attempt to explain WHY we do what we do!
        2. Integrate spiritual explanations with physical explanations with philosophical explanations
   
   
B. Religious influences
        1. Stone Age: Trephoning
            a. Cause of bad behavior = evil spirits in your body
            b. Resided in head/heart
            c. Make holes in your head to let the evil spirits out
        2. Exorcisms: getting evil spirits out
            a. Devil causing behavior
            b. Witch hunts
        3. Early Greek philosophers: gods
            a. Zeus and Aphrodite
            b. Behaviors were caused by tensions between the gods, and not human fault
  
   
C. Natural Causes of behavior
        1. Hippocrates (3460-370 BC)
            a. Cause no harm, treat the physical illness
            b. Proposing that the cause of bad behavior is physical
            c. 4 humors or fluids in the body being in balance
                i. Blood: too much- aggressive and oversexed; too little- weak and undersexed
                ii. Black bile: poop
                iii. Yellow bile: indigestion
                iv. Phelgm
        2. Aristotle: Father of Western thought
            a. Divided the psyche into two parts
                i. Mental mind
                ii. Physical body
            b. Mind is not the body; different rules control each

    D. Dark Ages or middle ages:
        1. Return to religious influences
        2. Setting up for the Renaissance

    E. Renaissance:
        1. Period of enlightenment
        2. Break from religion- return to natural causes
        3. DesCartes:
            a. Gentleman soldier/philosopher
            b. Philosophy and anatomy
            c. Discovered the reflex arc: spinal control, not brain control of some basic behaviors
            d. Mind is separate from the body: Dualist
        4. British Empiricists or Associationists
            a. Disagree with DesCartes
            b. Monists: brain = mind, one and the same
            c. Believe that we learn through experience or associations
            d. We are born as a blank slate (tabula rasa)

IV. Psychology is Born:
        A. Zeitgeist:
            1. Tremendous shift in the way we think about something
            2. Best example: DOS to Windows
            3. Three important people:
                a. Karl Marx: Marxism or communism
                b. Charles Darwin: evolution
                c. Sigmund Freud: psychoanalysis

        B. Psychology was born in Leipzig, Germany in 1878
            1. Wilhelm Wundt
             2. Teacher of first American psychology: Titchner
             3. Researchers and explainers first, not practitioners!

        C. Systems or schools of psychology
            1. Structuralism: studied structure of the mind and behavior
                a. Wanted to determine the important elements or parts to the brain and the mind
                b. Modern day: neuroscientists
                c. Early: introspection
            2. Functionalists: studied the function of the mind and behavior
                a. What purpose did the elements serve
                b. Why were they there!
                c. How behavior changes or evolves over time
            3. Behaviorists: focus on studying behavior, not the mind
                a. How do you define ‘internal” events? How do we use scientific method to observe the unseen?
                b. Need behavior!!!!
            4. Gestalists: German group
                a. No longer exist, because they were right!
                b. Early hippies
                c. Mantra: The Whole is Greater Than the Sum of its Parts!

                        . . . . .         is a line

                           .
                        . . . .       
  is a triangle

            but, although they both contain 5 "elements" or dots they are not the "same"
 

        5. Psychoanalysts: underlying mind!
            a. Unconscious
            b. Things, feelings, behaviors we are not aware of
            c. Mentalism: rules for our mind
            d. Id, ego, superego
        6. Ecclectic: psychologists who steal a little from each of these schools- they are a mix of philosophies
 

V. Three controversies that are pervasive in Psychology
    A. The mind body problem
        1. Are you a dualist or monist
        2. Do humans have souls?
        3. Do animals have souls?
        4. Is the treatment of the soul different than the treatment of the body?

    B. Nature or nurture
        1. How important are genetics?
        2. Huntington’s Chorea: dominant gene defect (if one parent carries it, you have a 50/50 chance of getting the disease)
        3. Violent behavior? Nature or nurture- learned or innate?

C. Free will versus Determinism
    1. Do we have the free choice to behave as we choose
    2. Or, are our choices determined by our behavior, by our environment, and by our genetics?
    3. Criminally insane

VI. Research methods
    A. Populations and samples
        1. Population: all possible cases of your individuals you are studying
        2. Theoretical, not real
        3. Sample: sub set of the population
        4. Sample is typically random
        5. Representative sample: make sure that all groups are included in the sample (percentage based)

B. Non experimental methods
        1. Cannot imply causality from these
        2. Naturalistic observation:
            a. Observe the subjects in their natural environment
            b. Biologists use
            c. Developmental psychologists
        3. Case Study:
            a. Observation and potentially an intervention on an individual or small group of individuals
            b. There is something special about them
        4. Survey:
            a. Ask questions
                i. Open ended
                ii. Multiple choice
            b. Individuals or give to a group
            c. People LIE
    5. Correlational studies
            a. Establishing a relationship between one event or thing and another
            b. Correlation: r =
                i. Slope of a line
                ii. 0 slope: no relationship between two things
                iii. +1.0: 1:1 relationship between two things, perfect relationship
                iv. -1.0: 1:1 relationship, but as one goes up, the other goes down
            c. Positive correlation between BBQing and water skiing
            d. Negative correlation between hot chocolate consumption and temperature
            e. Positive correlation between eating dinner with your family and your ACT score
            f. -1.0 to +1.0; correlation between IQ and grades is about 0.3

    C. Experimental studies
        1. These CAN show causation
        2. Use the scientific method to determine causes
        3. General experimental method
            a. Independent Variable: IV
                i. What the experimenter changes or manipulates
                ii. It’s the changed variable
            b. Dependent variable: DV
                i. What the experimenter measures
                ii. What is affected by the IV
            c. Example:
                i. Effects of alcohol intake on test performance
                ii. IV: alcohol: give different groups different amounts
                iii. DV: measure: test scores
        4. Different groups or levels of my Independent variable
            a. Several treatment groups (dose groups or conditions)
            b. Control group: a group that gets nothing or the standard treatment
            c. Placebo group: a group that is made to believe they got the treatment, but got nothing

    D. Problems in research
        1. Demand characteristics
            a. Subjects react to perceived demands from the experimenter
            b. Demands from the experimenter on him or herself- observational bias
        2. Blind experiments
            a. Single blind: subject doesn’t know the reason for the experiment or their group
            b. Double blind: neither the experimenter nor the subject knows the condition being tested
        3. Hawthorne effect: attention creates people who try harder
        4. Pygmalion effect: labeling

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7/17/06 Ethics and The Neuron and synaptic transmission

I. Ethics
    A. General rights for human subjects
        1. Right to privacy: HIPA
        2. Voluntary participation
        3. Adults must give consent; children give assent with parents giving consent
        4. No unjustified deception
            a. Milgram study at Yale: deceived the subjects
            b. Because of this, laws were changed
        5. Cannot cause lasting harm
        6. Debriefing: must tell you the point of the study after your participation
   
   
B. Rights for animal research
        1. At ISU we use: rodents, birds, farm animals
        2. Must have approved protocol that is approved by our ISU vet (and others)
        3. Follow AVA guidelines for pain and distress
  
 
C. Ethics committees
        1. For humans: IRB or institutional review board
        2. For animals: IACUC: Institutional animal care and use committee
            a. Oversight by 5 federal government agencies
            b. Dept of ag, NIH, NSF, OPRR
            c. Panel includes a vet for ISU, an outside consulting vet, animal users, nonscientists and community members

II. Neuronal transmission
    A. Think of your brain as a computer
        1. get info in to the brain
            -Sensory organs
        2. Process the information
        3. Take action on the information
        4. Brain must decide what is relevant information and what is irrelevant information
        5. As a feedback loop like a furnace
                a. Thermostat that “takes the temp”
                b. Furnace will turn on or off and take action based on the temp reading

B. Example: Dopamine
    1. has two ways of being released
        a. slow steady release
        b. transient bursts of release
    2. slow, steady release maintains an ongoing behavior (furnace stays on)
    3. transient pulsing causes a switch to a new behavior, depending on the environment
    4. What happens if you mess up this DA system
        a. If over react to everything: you are hyper sensitive because of too much transient DA action: autism
        b. ADHD kids: get little transient action
        c. Drug addiction: train the brain to pay attention to the wrong signals
        d. Schizophrenia: not split personality, but split from reality…..can’t tell brain firing from real life

    D. The neuron

 Neuron slides


        1. Highly specialized cell in the brain and nervous system
        2. Several kinds of cells in the nervous system
            a. Receptor cells: receive information
            b. Effector cells: send messages from the nervous system to the “action” parts of body….muscles, heart, etc.
            c. Glial cells: glue cells
                i. Neuron assistants
                ii. Next to or wrapped around neurons
                iii. Hold neurons in place, allow sending the signals between neurons
            d. Neurons: specialized cell in nervous system that engages in neurotransmission
                i. Send chemical signals to other neurons
                ii. Communication system for the nervous system
        3. Overall we have approximately 10 billion neurons and 10 x 14 glial cells
        4. 10 x 15 connections between neurons

        5. Not the number of cells that is important, but the connections

    E. Parts of a neuron
        1. Dendrites
            a. Hair like projections
            b. Receive incoming chemicals from the presynaptic neuron (the neuron on the other side of the synapse)
            c. Lots of dendrites on neuron: Alzheimer’s disease/disorder the dendrites fall off
        2. Soma or cell body
            a. Contain the life functions of the neuron
            b. Cell wall is critical here
        3. Axon
            a. Long long projection off of the soma
            b. Often wrapped in a myelin sheath made of glia cells (increases transmission speed)
        4. Terminal Buttons
            a. End of the axon
            b. Where chemical (or neurotransmitter) will be released
            c. Contains vesicles of neurotransmitter
        5. Synapse:
            a. Space between the presynaptic terminal button and post synaptic dendrite

III. Synaptic Transmission
    A. Neuron at “resting potential
        1. The neuron is resting
        2. Potential = electrical charge
        3. What the electrical charge is at rest: -70mV
        4. Ion charges contained by the chemicals in and out of the cell
            a. Inside the cell: Anions (A-) and potassium (K+)
            b. Outside the cell: extracellular fluid: sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-) (NaCl solution or salt water)
            c. Anions cannot leave the cell (stuck inside)

    B. Action potential
        1. The electrical charge during the action portion of the transmission
        2. Action potentials occur ALL or NONE
            a. The cell either fires or doesn’t fire (no wimpy ½ firing)
            b. Change from -70mV to +40mV or about a 110 mV change
            c. For a brief millisecond, the cell goes positive
            d. Then reset
            e. To do this: ions change places: ion exchange
                i. Na+ and then Cl- go in
                ii. K+ goes out
                iii. Then returns to “normal” or resting
        3. Refractory period:
            a. Briefly, after an action potential, the cell is more negatively charged
            b. Very, very hard, if not impossible for the cell to fire at this point
        4. Neurotransmitter release at the terminal buttons
            a. Synaptic vesicles hit the terminal button membrane wall
            b. Burst
            c. Neurotransmitter is released into the synapse
            d. Neurotransmitter floats in the synapse until it attaches to another dendrite
        5. Get rid of extra neurotransmitter in the synapse through several mechanism
            a. Obviously, the NT can attach to another dendrite
            b. Destroyed by enzymes in the synapse: MAO or monoamine oxydase
            c. Reuptake: extra NT is sucked back into the terminal button and recycled

    C. Buildup of NT on dendrites until its sufficient to cause an action potential
        1. Two kinds:
            a. Build up towards an action potential: Excitatory post synaptic potential or EPSP
            b. Build up away from an action potential (makes cell more negative): inhibitory post synaptic potential or IPSP

        2. Adds up all the incoming signals:
            a. Summation: adds up the signals
            b. Temporal summation: adds up over time
            c. Spatial summation: adds up over some area

IV. Neurotransmitters and drugs
    A. Two basic categories of neurotransmitters
        1. Excitatory
        2. Inhibitory
        3. Increase or decrease chances of an action potential
        4. NOTE: this does not necessarily parallel behavior
        5. Agonists: excitatory
        6. Antagonists: inhibitory
   
   
B. Amino acids
        1. Glutamate
        2. Aspartate: PKU
        3. Glycine
        4. Made of amino acids
        5. Regulatory function:
            a. Control basic body functions
            b. Memory
   
   
C. Soluable gases
        1. Nitric oxide
        2. Carbon monoxide
        3. Help protect neurons
        4. Also kill neurons:

    D. Acetylcholine: Ach
        1. Brain and spinal cord
        2. Peripheral nervous system at neuromuscular junctions
        3. Important for memory formation
        4. Controls motor movements
        5. Too much or too little: paralysis or muscle spasms: muscles are flaccid or over flexed
        6. Most incesticides are Ach based
        7. Atropine is made from Bella Donna or nightshade
        8. Brown recluse spider: atropine based venom

    E. Norepinephrine: NE in the central nervous system and ephedrine (E) in the peripheral nervous system
        1. Biologists call this noradrenalin and adrenalin
        2. Excitory: increases arousal
        3. In CNS for arousal and attention
        4. In peripheral NS: controls heart, lungs, digestion (and sex)
        5. Beta blockers block the beta noradrenergic receptor: Inderal
        6. Sudafed: pseudoephedrine

    F. Dopamine
        1. Kissing cousin of NE
        2. Found in CNS and periphery
        3. CNS: arousal and motivation and reward
        4. Periphery: heart and lung
        5. Too little DA: Parkinson’s disease
            a. DA cells in substania nigra die
            b. DA act on Ach neurons which act on muscles
            c. Treatment is DA
                i. DA won’t cross the blood brain barrier
                ii. Precursor form: L-Dopa
        6. Too much DA: hallucinations and delusions similar to schizophrenia
            a. Reduce DA using an antipsychotic medication such as thorazine, serentil
            b. Side effect: tardive dyskinesia: drug induced parkinson’s
   
   
G. Seratonin: 5HT
        1. Five-hydroxy-tryptomine
        2. In both the CNS and periphery
        3. CNS: arousal and anxiety or anticipation
        4. Too little serotonin, more anxiety
            a. Depression is often the result of anxiety
            b. Decreasing serotonin affects DA, NE
            c. SSRI: serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor

    H. GABA:
        1. Mimics GABA effects: valium
        2. Reduce or eliminate the function of anxiety circuits
        3. Immediate acting
        4. Highly addicting

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7/18/07 Neuroanatomy: The Brain and Spinal Cord
 

Brain Anatomy Slides

I. Brain and Spinal cord
    A. Central nervous system
        1. Closed system: protected from outside penetration
        2. Brain and spinal cord
        3. Best protected set of organs in the body
            a. Hard skull to protect the brain
            b. First to get oxygen and nutrients
        4. Size isn’t important, its density
        5. Outer covering of the brain: meninges
            a. Three layers: dura mater, arachnoid and the pia mater
            b. Form a protective covering that keeps out bacteria and other substances
            c. Can get infected: meningitis
        6. Brain and spinal cord are bathed in fluid called the cerebral-spinal fluid or CSF

    B. Spinal cord
        1. Not as well protected as brain
            a. Flexible (you bend)
            b. Accessible to rest of the body
            c. Encased in vertebrae: bone-like structures
        2. Two kinds of fibers
            a. Afferent fibers: incoming sensations
            b. Efferent fibers: motor neurons
            c. Reflex centers: DesCartes Reflex Arc
                i. Connection between sensory and motor neurons
                ii. Action for certain events occurs at spinal level
 

II. Peripheral nervous system
    A. Two basic systems
        1. Somatic or voluntary
        2. Autonomic: involuntary
            a. Sympathetic
            b. Parasympathetic

    B. Sympathetic:
        1. Expending energy
        2. Fight or flight
        3. System of behavior: freeze, run, fight
        4. Increase in heart rate, lung function, stop digestion, dilate eyes, arousal

    C. Parasympathetic
        1. Conserve or gain energy
        2. Digestion
        3. Digestive/growth hormones
        4. Sexual behavior

    D. Hormones vs. neurotrasmitters
        1. Often it is the same chemical
        2. Adrenalin (epinephrine) vs. noradrenalin or norepinephrine
        3. Speed of action: NT are fast, hormones are slow (through the blood)

III. Brain
    A three main divisions of the brain
        1. Hind brain: lower part of the brain
        2. Mid brain: middle brain
        3. Cerebrum or forebrain: top of the brain

    B corresponds to evolution and prenatal development
        1. Brain as it develops, follows an evolutionary course
        2. Starts with the earliest, ends with the most recent

C. Brain also has two halves
    1. Left hemisphere
    2. Right hemisphere
    3. Connected by the corpus callosum
    4. Left brain controls the right side of the body
    5. Right brain controls the left side
    6. Left brain = primarily language/sequential tasks
    7. Right brain = spatial/pictoral

D. Hindbrain: several major structures
    1. Medulla oblongata:
        a. Basic life functions: breathing, heart, blood pressure
        b. Serious damage: fatal
        c. Area postrema: nausea center (location of a leaky blood brain barrier)
    2. Cerebellum:
        a. Large swelling on the back of brain
        b. Striated tissue: its striped
        c. Coordinate muscle movements, especially fine motor
        d. Damage: cerebral palsy
    3. Pons:
        a. Bridge or pathway
        b. Coordinates and organizes incoming information and sends to the thalamus
    4. Reticular formation:
        a. Attention and arousal
        b. Sentry system: determines what information to pay attention to and what to ignore
        c. Responsive to change

    E. Midbrain
        1. In humans, not much of a mid brain
        2. Birds, prey animals (animals that get chased), very large
        3. Lateral geniculate bodies: LGN
        4. Coordination system to tune your attention to a sudden change

IV. Forebrain
    A Thalamus
        1. Relay station for the forebrain
        2. Directs incoming information to the correct location
        3. Coordinates all senses EXCEPT smell for humans
        4. Smell is directly wired to the frontal lobes

    B. Hypothalamus:
        1. just above and surrounding the Thalamus
        2. controls basic instinctual behaviors or the 4 F’s
            a. feeding
            b. fighting
            c. fleeing
            d. sex
        3. controls the autonomic nervous system

    C. Corpus Striatum: motor habits
        1. located between the thalamus and cortex, near the hypothalamus
        2. composed of several structures
            a. caudate nuclelus
            b. putamen
            c. globus pallidus
            d. substantia nigra
        3. complex but well rehearsed motor movements are controlled here
        4. Parkinson’s syndrome results in damage here

    D. Limbic system
        1. emotion area
        2. encircles the thalamus/hypothal/corpus striatum
        3. several structures:
            a. amygdala
            b. hippocampus
            c. septal area
        4. amygdala: decision center
        5. hippocampus: nonverbal memories for emotional events and actions

V. Cerebrum
    A Thinking part of the brain
        1. 2 hemispheres
        2. 4 lobes or areas on each hemisphere
            a. Temporal lobe: by your temple
            b. Frontal lobe: front most part of brain
            c. Occipital: back part of brain
            d. Parietal: top of the brain
        3. Newest part of the brain
        4. Highly convoluted and compacted
            a. Sulci or valleys (sulcus)
            b. Gyri or hills (gyrus)
            c. Allows more tissue in less space
            d. Use sulci and gyri as landmarks

    B. Parietal lobe
        1. top of your head
        2. somatosensory cortex or brain area
        3. body-sense interactions
        4. sensations such as feeling is here
            a. touch
            b. pressure
            c. hot/cold
        5. spatial body location/awareness are processed here
        6. body awareness issues: somatosensory disruptions and distortions
            a. sensory neglect
            b. phantom limb: limb is gone, but the brain doesn’t know it

    C. Occipital lobe: vision
        1. best charted area of the brain
        2. certain kinds of cells for different kinds of vision
            a. cells for color
            b. cells for shape
            c. cells for spatial location
            d. etc, etc.
        3. two vision pathways in the brain
            a. spatial location pathway: Where is it?
            b. object or focal pathway: What is it?
        4. cortical blindness: damage a pathway at the brain level- so the eyes work , but the brain doesn’t

    D. Temporal lobe:
        1. Sides of your head by your temple
        2. Clear left/right distinction
            a. Left: language/linear or logical function
            b. Right: spatial/pictoral
        3. Hearing or audition
            a. Language based and spatially based
            b. Pitch, timbre, spatialness of sounds
            c. Linear speech
        4. Processing speech: two process that must happen
            a. Understanding: receptive
            b. Produce speech: expressive
            c. Motor production
        5. Two brain areas
            a. Broca’s area: speech production (more frontal lobe)
            b. Wernicke’s area: speech understanding- knowing the words/meaning
   
    E
. Frontal lobe:
        1. Motor and cognition
        2. Motor areas closer to parietal lobe
            a. Integrate volunary movement
            b. Coordination
        3. Prefrontal lobe (front most part of brain)
            a. Thinking part
            b. Planning and execution of cognitive behavior
            c. Damage here disrupts cognitive functions: Wisconsin Card Sorting Task- you can’t dual sort cards by color and shape
            d. Damage here affects “surprise”

    F. Problems with research areas:
        1. Rely on animal models: animals aren’t humans
        2. Human subjects tend to be brain damaged subjects: old adage: where there is one injury there is likely to be more
        3. What we know about humans:
             a. Integration in the brain
            b. Left hemisphere doesn’t work in isolate of the right hemisphere!
                i. Split brain surgery
                ii. Show visual image to one side of the body and not to the other, get differences:
                    1. Show “left brain” a naked person: name “a naked person”- no emotional content
                    2. Show “right brain” a naked person: can’t name the visual image, but they blush
        4. Very true that humans have old parts of their brain and thus we have animal like instincts:
            a. Sex behaviors may be instinctual in certain ways:
            b.. Female strategy: get the strongest, wealthiest male possible
            c. Male strategy: get the most fertile female
            d. Male: love em and leave em
            e. Female: keep em

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7/19/07 Vision, Audition and Perception!

Remember the first test is Monday!

Vision slides

Audition slides

I. Vision
    A. Light and the nature of light
        1. Light is composed of photons
        2. Photons travel in waves
        3. Length of the wave (from crest to crest) gives color (psychological level)
        4. Height of the wave and the compactness of the waves give saturation of color
        5. This allows us to have a physical measurement of something and a psychological measure of our reaction to it!

    B. Sensation and perception:
        1. Receiving an incoming message from the outside world
        2. Perception: interpreting that sensation
        3. Problem: when is it a sensation and when is it a perception

    C. Visible spectrum to humans:
        1. We only see or perceive a certain range of light waves
        2. We perceive light waves in other ways: other forms of electromagnetic energy:
            a. X rays
            b. Ultraviolet
            c. FM, AM TV, etc.
        3. The visual spectrum:
            a. Red to violet
            b. Each wavelength of light = color
            c. Light with all wavelengths = white
        4. Your eye must:
            a. Receive a signal says “photons out there”
            b. Turn the light wave stimulation into an action potential
            c. Coded in brain
            d. Make sense out of the stimulation


II. The Eyeball!
    A Eye parts:
        1. Cornea: clear outer membrane of the eye
            a. Clear
            b. Rounded
            c. Smooth
            d. Astigmatism: waffle iron cornea!
        2. Aqueous humor: small amount of liquid right behind the cornea- irrigation system
        3. Iris and pupil
            a. Iris is the colored part of your eye
            b. Muscle: striated muscle or a sphincter muscle
            c. Control amount of light coming into the eye
            d. Pupil: hole!
        4. Lens
            a. Hard membrane
            b. Smooth
            c. Clear
            d. Oval to round
            e. Change shape to bend the light depending on how far away you are trying to see
            f. Near things: very round
            g. Far thins: very flat
            h. Ciliary muscles that push and pull on the lens
                    i. Cataracts: cloudiness of lens
        5. Vitreous humor: large chamber of fluid that gives the eyeball its shape
        6. Retina:
            a. Layer of tissue
            b. Contain lots of different kinds of cells
            c. Receptor cells for vision:
                i. Rods: black/white or light/dark vision
                    1. About 120 million rods
                    2. Many rods connect to a single neuron
                ii. Cones: color vision
                    1. 5 million cones
                    2. One cone to one neuron
                    3. Most of cones are in the FOVEA
        7. Blind spot: where the optic nerve exits the eye (no receptor cells here)

    B. pathway to eye
        1. retina’s rods and cones connect to a ganglion cell (kind of neuron)
        2. ganglion cell forms the optic nerve
        3. the optic nerve from each eye splits into 2: ½ goes left, ½ goes right: where cross is called the optic chiasm
        4. from optic chiasm goes to the lateral geniculate nuclei (midbrain!)
        5. splits into form vision vs spatial vision and travels to occipital lobe

    D. Eye problems
        1. Nearsighted:
            a. Only see clearly the near objects
            b. Myopia
            c. Lens too curved or eyeball is too long!
            d. Focus ahead of the retina
            e. Concave lens
        2. Farsighted
            a. Only see clearly the far objects
            b. Hypermetropic
            c. Lens is too flat or eyeball is too short!
            d. Focus behind the retina
            e. Convex lens: magnifies light
        3. Presbyopia: lens is stiff due to old age
        4. Eyes can be out of alignment: strabismus
            a. Eyes might turn in or out
            b. Only affect one eye
            c. This doesn’t allow the eyes to focus together….so, the brain starts to ignore one eye
            d. Brain tissue death if this is not corrected by about age 6
 

III. Two basic theories of color vision
    A Trichromatic theory
        1. Three color theory
        2. Young (1880) and then von Hemmholtz (1950)
        3. Can’t have specialized cone for each color in the world- too complicated
        4. Three primary colors
            a. Red
            b. Green
            c. Blue
        5. Three primary cones: red, green and blue
            a. These mix to form color signal
            b. Different amounts of red, green or blue respond to a particular color
            c. There ARE three kinds of cones!
   
   
B. opponent process theory
        1. there are 3 cones in the retina (correct)
        2. at the brain level: opponent processes
            a. dark/light or black/white unit
            b. red/green unit
            c. blue/yellow unit
        3. Hering (1850) and then Hurvich and Jamison (1957) demonstrated this model or theory

        4 why see american flag as an after image:
                Yellow turns to blue
                Black turns to white
                Green turned to red
                White is all color: G + R so (G+R)-G = R

        5. Color blindness:
            a. Mostly men (X-recessive trait)
            b. Women: birth damage
            c. Most typically red-green

IV. Audition
    A Sound waves
        1. Have “waves”
        2. Measure waves: apex to apex
        3. Physical measurement to psychological measurement
            a. Size of the wave: loudness
            b. Distance of the wave (apex to apex) = pitch
    B. loudness in decibels or dB
        1. normal hearing: 5 dB
        2. kids have better hearing
        3. as sounds get louder, they hurt the ear

    C. parts of the ear
        1. outside flap: pinna
        2. outer ear canal
        3. middle ear
            a. tympanic membrane: ear drum
                i. living tissue
                ii. drum head
            b 3 bones: malleus, incus, stapes (hammer, anvil, stirrups)
            c. Oval window- opening into the inner ear
        4. Inner ear
            a. Cochlea: hearing organ
            b. Vestibular membranes: balance
                i. Semicircular canals
                ii. Vestibular membrane
   
   
D semicircular canals and vestibular membrane
        1.  Balance
        2. Linked by nerve to brain stem (area postrema)
        3. Meinere’s disease or disorder: vestibular membrane autoimmune disorder
   
   
E Cochlea
        1. Snail like
        2. Membrane that is covered with hair cells
        3. When air pressure passes through, bends the hairs which stimulate the hair cells which send a signal to the auditory nerve
        4. Two ways of processing sound information
            a. Place or location of the hair cell movement on the cochlea
            b. How fast the hair cells move: frequency theory
            c. Volley principle: different hair cells at different locations can move at different places and speeds
            d. 200-20,000 Hz or cyles: place theory is correct
            e. 20-4,000 hz: frequency theory
            f. Between 200 and 4000 hz, both the location and speed of the hair cells changes
            g. Human speech ranges from 200-4000 hz

    F. Hearing loss
        1. Two basic kinds of hearing loss
            a. Conductive loss: middle ear is bad
            b. Sensorineural loss: nerve and cochlea are bad
            c. Mixed loss: both
        2. Causes?
            a. Hundred and hundreds of causes
            b. Range of hearing loss
                i. Mild: 20-40 dB
                ii. Moderate loss: 40-60 db
                iii. Severe profound: 60-100 db
                iv. Deaf greater than 100db
            c. Tinnitus: ringing/buzzing or clicking in your ears
  
 
G. treatments
        1. hearing aids
            a. analog aids: louder: good for conductive loss
            b. digital aids: selectively enhance or screenn out sounds: tinnitus or sensoryneural or mixed

        2. Cochlear implants: electrical/computer chips implanted on the cochlea
            a. Implant
            b. Receiver on head
            c. Microphone or hearing aid on the ear

V. Gestalt psychology and perception
    A history
        1. German
        2. Interested in the function of vision
        3. How we put the pieces together
        4. Mantra: the whole is greater than the sum of its parts
   
B. We organize what we see and hear
        1. organization = gestalt or good figure
        2. use distinctive features of incoming messages
            a. discriminate figure vs. ground
            b. use the total configuration
            c. 1234 1augh

    C. rules for organizing our world:
        1. proximity: closeness shows membership
        2. similarity: similar things go together
        3. contrast or edges
        4. good continuation: like patterns to continue
        5. closure: like end points
        6. pragnanz or simple and symmetric figures
        7. when given ambiguous figure: we make it good figure by using common fate

   D. Perceptual constancies:
        1. Finish objects
        2. Prefer our sounds and visual cues to agree
        3. Biases how and who we perceive


VI. Depth perception
    A translate a 2 dimensional image into a 3 dimensional image
        1. Make a neural signal into height, width and depth
        2. Can do this even with pictures
        3. Three ways to do this:
            a. Eye feedback cues
            b. Picture cues
            c. Binocular (2-eyed) disparity
 
 
B. picture cues
        1. stationary 2-D objects
        2. size = cue:
            a. far objects are smaller than near objects
            b. even infants understand this
        3. interposition: the near object can block the far object
        4. lighting and shadowing
        5. linear and texture perspective
            a. babies and visual clif
            b. babies crawl out onto a plexiglass bridge-refused but precrawling babies were fascinated
            c. precocial animals (animals that can feed themselves and walk) show fear immediately

    C. feedback cues:
        1. accommodation: lens muscles in the eyes pushing and pulling on the lens
        2. convergence: eyes turning in or out tells you depth

    D. Binocular disparity:
        1. each eye sees a little different image
        2. acceptable degree of overlap between the images:
            a. if less overlap: far away
            b. more overlap: closer
            c. no overlap or way to much overlap: fall down and puke

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7/24/07 Basic Learning

I. Learning
    A. Learning defined

        1. a relatively permanent change in behavior not due to maturation but to experience or practice
        2. forms a continuum from very basic habituation to classical condition, operant conditioning, modeling and then cognitive behaviors

    B. Classical Conditioning
       1
. The reflex arc:
            a. reflex is elicited by a stimulus
            b. classical conditioning = learning to react to a new stimulus
            c. new stimulus predicts some event

        2. Ivan Pavlov: 1927 first wrote about classical conditioning
            a. Russian physiologist
            b. famous salivation experiment:
                i. knew that food elicited salivation: unlearned or unconditioned
                ii. found that when a stimulus was paired with food presentation, this stimulus alone could produce the salivation: learned or conditioned

         3. e.g.: bell = learned stimulus:

            BELL (CS) ---> Food presentation (US) ---> Salivation (UR)
                        \
                          \
                            -> Salivation (CR)

        4. Specific labels for each of these events:
            a. unconditioned stimulus:
                1. what is unlearned or automatically evokes the response
                2. can be previously learned
                3. e.g. the food presenation

            b. unconditioned response
                1. the unlearned or automatic response
                2. could be a previously learned response
                3. the initial salivation

            c. the conditioned stimulus
                1. the new learned stimulus
                2. what predicts the UC

            d. conditioned response:
                1. the response which occurs to the newly learned CS
                2. what you do as result of the CS
                3. NOTE: NOT HAVE TO RESPOND- no contingency
                4. may be similar or different than original UR

    C. Characteristics or Parameters of Classical Conditioning
        1. Form of the CR vs UR
            a. CR and UR are not always the same
            b. can even be opposite: e.g. Siegel's morphine work
            c. remember: is an anticipatory response in a way
            d. react because the CS predicts some event

        2. Strength of the CR: how much or how strongly do you show it
            a. gradually increases with trials
            b. monotonically increasing curve: levels off at some point
            c. reaches an ASYMPTOTE or highest level

        3. Extinction:
            a. CR goes away if CS stops predicting an event
            b. stop the CS-US pairing
            c. slowing declines- almost opposite of learning curve

        4. Spontaneous Recovery:
            a. if give an occasional CS presentation after extinction, occasionally the organism reacts to the CS as before extinction
            b. unpredictable as to when this will occur

        5. Relearning:
            a. after original learning, is faster to relearn
            b. that is: training, extinction, then training again
            c. not as difficult as first situation

        6. Generalization
            a. conditioned response may generalize to similar CS's
            b. that is, react to stimuli which are characteristically similar to original stimulus

        7. Discrimination
            a. conditioned response may be trained to occur only to the particular CS or CS's that predict the response
            b. e.g. learn that only certain bell rather than all bells predict food.

    D. Four Procedural forms of Classical Conditioning:
        1. remember: basic set up
                a. CS then US
                b. CS predicts US, so get a CR to it
                c. can vary the amount of time between the CS and US to produce different effects

        2. Four types of classical conditioning:
            a. simultaneous conditioning:
                1. CS and US presented AT THE SAME TIME
                2. no gap between the 2 events
                3. produces so-so conditioning

            b. Delayed conditioning:
                1. CS presented, then US follows IMMEDIATELY after
                2. NO gap between CS and US
                3. produces very strong conditioning

            c. Trace Conditioning
                1. CS presented, then a short time gap, then US presented
                2. GAP between the CS and the US
                3. thus, organism must have a "memory trace" of the CS
                4. produces good conditioning if gap not too long

            d. Backward conditioning:
                1. US presented first, then the CS
                2. thus is backwards
                3. doesn't work EXCEPT in case of taste aversion conditioning

            e. why get these effects: boils down to predictability issues

    E. Applications of Classical Conditioning:
        1. Learning of Emotional Reactions:
                a. learn that certain stsimuli predict certain events, thus come to elicit certain emotions

                b. e.g. : Little Albert study
                    1. CS = white rat
                    2. US = loud noise
                    3. UR = fear
                    4. CR = fear, anxiety, avoidance

                c. thus: Classical conditioning may result in development of phobias

                d. may also deliberately develop these phobias:
                    1. taste aversion
                    2. food aversions for weight loss
                    3. smoking and drinking clinics

        2. Removing emotional conditioning:
                a. systematic desensitization
                b. teach client progressive relaxation techniques
                c. then: pair some stimulus with these relaxation techniques

                d. gradually begin to pair fear-eliciting stimulus with relaxation in sort of a "stimulus replacement" program
                    1. fear hierarchy
                    2. use until can tolerate fear situation

        3. Use in Pain control
            a. same set up w/relaxation program
            b. then teach to concentrate on some stimulus during times of intense pain
            c. e.g. Lamaze

        4. Advertising and commmercials
            a. pair a CS (your product or jingle) w/ US (Feeling or emotion)
            b. e.g McDonald's:
                1. CS = McDonald's jingle
                2. US = picture of big Mac
                3. UR = salivation, desire for hamburger
                4. CR = going and getting it at McDonald's

            c. also: Ford Taurus commercials, etc.

II. Operant Conditioning
    A. The Law of Effect
        1. Thorndike (1911): The law of effect
                a. puzzle box experiments with cats
                b. first law of effect: When a response is followed by a satisfying state of affairs, that response will increase in frequency
                c. also negative law of effect

        2. Skinner: made two modifications:
            a. first: problem with "satisfying state of affairs"
                (1) reinforcement
                (2) punishment

            b. second: stated would increase PROBABILITY of response, not actual frequency

    B. Important distinction between operant and classical conditioning
        1. in classical conditioning:
                a. CS predicts US, so react
                b. not HAVE to respond

        2. in operant conditioning:
                a. is a contingency in place
                b. S+: R---> Sr or P
                c. a stimulus may or may not predict the contingency
                d. in a contingency: The organism MUST make the contingent response in order to gain the consequences

        3. any event which increases the probability of a response = reinforcer
        4. any event which decreases the probability of a response = punisher

    C. Four types of consequences for producing behavior change
            1. Reinforcement and Punishment Defined:
                    a. two types of behavioral consequences: Reinforcement and punishment
                    b. using a stimulus to increase behavior = reinforcement
                    c. using a stimulus to decrease behavior = punishment

            2. two types of stimuli/ways to present stimuli:
                a. adding of a stimulus (consequence)
                b. removing a stimulus (consequence)

            3. 4 square way of looking at:


        4. Thus: 2 types of reinforcement
            a. POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT
                1. application of a stimulus to increase behavior
                2. you RECEIVE something and your behavior increases

            b. NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT
                1. withdrawal of a stimulus to increase behavior
                2. something is removed or taken away and your behavior increases

        5. ALSO: 2 types of punishment:
            a. POSITIVE punishment
                1. application of a stimulus to decrease behavior
                2. you RECEIVE something and your behavior decreases

            b. NEGATIVE punishment
                1. withdrawal of a stimulus to decrease behavior
                2. you LOSE something as a result of your behavior
                3. e.g.
                        (a) Response cost
                        (b) time-out

    D. Basic parameters:
        1. strength of the response:
            a. learning curve, similar to CC
            b. monotonically increasing

        2. delay of the reinforcer or punisher
        3. the size, amount or quality of a reinforcer or punisher

        4. extinction:
            a. differs significantly from CC
            b. initially is a SPONTANEOUS INCREASE in responding before get the decline in responses
            c. also get EXTINCTION INDUCED AGGRESSION
            d. ALSO; spontaneous recovery

        5. generalization:
            a. response may occur in highly similar situations to that of the training setting
            b. or highly similar responses may come under stimulus control

        6. discrimination:
            a. response occurs only for specific situation in which contingency is in effect
            b. or contingency only evokes a particular response or set o responses

        7. Schedules of Reinforcement:
            a. Schedules of reinforcment: rules that specify which response will be followed by a reinforcer
            b. literally- a time or frequency schedule

            c. Types of reinforcement schedules:
                    (1) continuous reinforcement: CRF
                    (2) Partial or intermittent reinforcement: PRF

    E. four basic kinds of PRF:
        1. fixed ratio:
            a. cumulative recorder
            b. fixed or set amount of responses required by the schedule
            c. e.g. a FR 5 sets a contingency such that every 5th response is reinforced
            d. end up with a break and run pattern of responding

        2. variable ratio
            a. vary the amount of responses required
            b. based on some average number of responses:
                (1) e.g. like a grade point or a slot machine
                (2) FR5: the average of every 5 responses is rewarded

            c. ends up with steady state responding: no breaks

        3. fixed interval
            a. fixed or set amount of time required to pass before a contingent response will result in a reinforcer
            b. can respond inbetween- but does no good
            c. e.g. pay checks- every 2 weeks: FI 2 weeks
            d. results in a fixed-interval scallop pattern

        4. variable interval:
            a. vary the amount of time required to pass before a contingent response will result in a reinforcer
            b. again, can respond inbetween- but get no reinforcer
            c. like dialing the phone when get a busy signal
            d. results in steady state behavior

        5. Characteristics of partial reinforcement schedules:
            a. more resistant to extinction
            b. produce more lasting behavior
            c. avoid satiation problems

    F. Superstition:
        1. according to Skinner: occurs when randomly reinforce
        2. looks like whatever is accidently paired with the Sr is reinforced
        3. newer research suggests is not just any old response:
            a. biologically relevant responses
            b. waiting responses
            c. maintained easily, particularly in punishment situations

III. Biological boundaries of learning
    A. (wrong) the old equipotentiality principle
        1. old (early) learning theorists didn’t believe in biology interacting on learning
        2. believed that:
            a. any CS could be paired with any US
            b. any response can be reinforced
            c. anything can be learned if you have enough time

    B. Taste Aversion or Poison Based Avoidance conditioning (PBAC)
        1. learn CS (food) –US (poison) learn in ONE trial
        2. most if not all species show it!
        3. species show it in different ways: modality specific
        4. limitations on what we can learn: Garcia Effect
        5. limitation to connections between a CS and US

 

    C. SSDR: Species Specific Defense Reactions
        1. Bob Bolles (1967)
        2. three categories of fear reactions
            a. freezing
            b. fleeing
            c. fighting
        3. which behavior you do depends on where the threatening stimulus is
        4. animals: 1 way vs 2-way shuttle

    D. Instinctive Drift:
        1. instinctual behaviors drift over and interfere with our learned behaviors
        2. sometimes we disrupt the learned response
        3. Breland and Breland: 1960’s: Misbehavior of Organisms
            a. Piggy Bank Pig
            b. Miserly Raccoon
            c. Dancing Chicken/ baseball chicken

        4. watch people in front of the elevator or “waiting”

    E. Learned helplessness:
        1. animals and people learn a “contingency rule”
            a. rule about the way a response and reinforcer are connected
            b. “be good, get candy”
            c. I can’t

        2. may or may not be true, but as long as the animal/person acts like it is true, it works
        3. the person or animal gives up
        4. treatment: unlearn the contingency
            a. extinguish the old contingency
            b. reinforcer “help” behaviors

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7/25/07 Modeling and Memory

I. Review
    A. Couple kinds of learning yesterday
        1. Classical conditioning
            a. Take a neutral stimulus and teach to it: make it meaningful
            b. CS-US
            c. Key to classical conditioning is predictability of the CS
            d. No response requirement
        2. Operant conditioning
            a. R-Sr
            b. Response is rewarded or punished
                i. Reinforced (pos. or neg) response increases
                ii. Punished (pos. or neg) response decreases
            c. Responses must occur to get the consequence: contingency
    B. New or higher learning: modeling or learning by watching
        1. Observed individual can be learning by CC or OC
        2. Learning learns by watching

II . Modeling or social learning
    A. Albert Bandura (1950’s and 1960’s)
        1. Noticed that kids learned by watching
        2. Wanted to formally describe this kind of learning
        3. Basic idea: observer learns by watching a model

    B. 4 mechanisms or steps
        1. Attentional processes
            a. Observer must watch the model
            b. Characteristics of the model that impact this       
                i. Status
                ii. Gender
                iii. Age
            c. Characteristics of the observer
                i. Affective valence: mood
                ii. Sensory abilities
                iii. Complexity of the task and developmental level
                iv. Value of the behavior to the observer
        2. Retentional processes
            a. Must be able to remember what you saw
            b. 2 types of remembering
                i. Verbal: words
                ii. Imaginal: doing
            c. Several memory factors
                i. Symbolic coding
                ii. Cognitive organization
                iii. Rehearsal
        3. Motoric reproduction
            a. Physical capacity to do the behavior
            b. Self feedback
        4. Reinforcement
            a. You must be rewarded for doing it
            b. Vicarious reward: if the model gets rewarded, you are more likely to try it
   
   
D. Implications for education and society
        1, animals model
            a most primates and many mammals model
            b. dogs imitating others
            c. tool use in nonhuman primates relies on modeling
            d. sea mammals are excellent at modeling
        2. Bobo doll studies
            a. Bobo was a large inflatable clown toy from the 1960’s: hit Bobo and he stood back up
            b. preschool kids: watched a video of Bobo being beaten by a grad student or a nature film
            c. put the kids in a room with Bobo
                1. all the kids hit Bobo
                2. the kids who had watched the model hit Bobo imitated the words and the movements of the model
            d how do kids imitate and what do they imitate the most
                1. Compared live action to cartoon: live and real action is worst
                    a. Kids seemed to pick up on “real” vs “fake”
                    b. Cartoon characters weren’t real and they knew they couldn’t do those things
                2. Imitate violent behavior
                3. Also imitate: helping behavior
                    a. Use this as therapy
                    b. Kids are good “role models”
                4. Also model: sexual behavior and drug/alcohol use

II. Memory
    A memory involves the 3 R’s
        1. Register: acquisition or getting the information in
        2. Rehearsal: practice it
        3. Retrieval: getting the info back out
    B. Several different kinds of memory
        1. Semantic memory:
            a. Verbal memory
            b. Memory for language
        2. Episodic memory:
            a. Memory for events and places
            b. Picture memory
            c. Nonverbal
        3. Procedural memory:
            a. Memory for an action
            b. Doing memory

        4. Eidectic memory
            a. Photographic memory
            b. Snapshot memory
            c. Mostly observed in young children
            d. Sometimes in adults for traumatic events (unreliable)
   
   
C. Two important abilities required for using your memory
        1. Metalinguistic awareness
            a. Awareness of how language works
            b. Acquire this about 6 or 7 years old
        2. Metacognition
            a. Awareness of how you think and how you develop memory
            b. Ages 6 or 7

    D. Three stages of memory
        1. Sensory register memory
            a. Brief: less than 1-2 seconds
            b. Non categorical: you take in everything
            c. Decision process: process or not?
        2. Short term memory: STM
            a. Duration is about 20 seconds uninterrupted
            b. Limited capacity: 5-9 items (7 plus or minus 2)
            c. To keep it in memory you must rehearse it
                i. Repeating it: maintenance
                ii. Make it meaningful: elaborative
            d. Chunking: put the info into meaningful pieces
                e.g.. Phone number: 309-438---8333
        3. Long term memory
            a. Forever (technically)
            b. You must have used elaborative or maintenance rehearsal to get information into LTM
            c. Mnemonics are memory devices used to make the information more meaningful

   
E. Forgetting
    1. Long term memory problem
    2. Two basic ways to forget
        a. Decay: physical damage to the neuronal circuit in the brain
        b. Interference:
            i. Other information gets in the way
            ii. Two kinds: proactive and retroactive interference
    3. Proactive interference:
        a. The new learning disrupts old learning
        b. Old learning gets wiped out or under processed
    4. Retroactive interference
        a. The old learning disrupts the new learning
        b. New learning gets wiped out
    5. Degree of original learning and new learning and the degree of interference
        a. You remember the material you learned best!
        b. The degree of similarity between the two
        c. Contextual factors
            i. Your physical and mental states
           
ii. Eliciting cues: similarity of the room/time of day, etc
   
d. Recognition vs recall
            i. Recognition: multiple choice- just ID it
            ii. Recall: write it from scratch

concept formation and problem solving slides

III. Concept formation
    A concept:
        1. Form a category for grouping items together
        2. Efficient and easier to remember
        3. Form of chunking

    B. General hierarchy to categories or concepts
        1. superordinate category: animal, mineral vegetable
        2. basic category: mammal
        3. subordinate: dog, breed,
        4. individual: your dog: Seamus

    C. use a protype:
        1. examplar: an example
        2. protypes contain all the essential features of a concept
        3. compare the individual to the exemplar or protype
        4. physiological evidence for protype neurons: feature detection neurons

    D. Out of concepts come schemas
        1. A schema is a grouping of similar concepts
        2. Global concept
        3. Stereotyped
        4. You use them to organize your world, and expect the world to be organized according to your schema
        5 Schemas can be unreliable
            a get rid of unimportant details
            b fill in missing details
            c make your story or schema complete
            d eyewitness testimony is horribly unreliable because of schemas
                1. Elizabeth loftus
                2. She shows that how you interview an individual can change their story
                3. Extraneous information can through off a schema

IV. Problem solving
    A Several ways and thus theories about how we solve problems:
        1. Trial and error:
            a. Just keep doing new behaviors until you hit the solution
            b. Head banging!
            c. Problem with this is that it is very inefficient
        2. Gestalts: Insight or the Aha Phenomenon
            a. Several stages: suspense, confusion, walk away and ignore, then the solution is there!
            b. Can’t explain, but we can replicate
        3. Hypothesis testing
            a. Make an hypothesis
            b. Test it
            c. Redo it as needed
        4. Information processing model
            a. Algorithm: always gets the correct answer
            b. Heuristic: usually gets the correct answer
            c. Rules for working
        5. Analogies:
            a. We use examples to solve new problems
            b. This problem is “like” another
            c. Use of video games can train the use of analogies
   
   
B. problems with problems
        1. well defined problems have
            a. well defined and generally single answer
            b. strict set of givens and operations

        2. Ill defined problem: A fuzzy problem
            a.  there is no set answer
            b. are no strict set of givens and no set operations

    C. functional fixedness:
        1. we get stuck on the intended function of an object
        2. we can’t see a novel use for the object
        3. McGwyver NEVER had this!

    D. problem set:
        1. you find a solution routine that works
        2. you keep using it and can’t switch even when confronted with a different problem
        3. Examining forward vs backward problem solvers
            a. Forward problem solvers are experts
            b. Back ward problem solvers (they start with the solution and work backwards) are novices
            c. Mastery and fluency
   

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7/26/07 Personality, IQ and testing

I. What is personality?
    A. Definition
        1. Mood vs. personality
            a. Mood is fluctuating
            b. Personality should be a relatively stable trait
        2. Distinctive patterns of behavior, thought and emotions that characterize an individual
        3. Key aspects or traits

    B. Explaining where your personality comes from and how it develops
        1. “systems” of psychology
        2. Psychodynamic and humanistic approaches
        3. Still have neuroscience, behavioral, cognitive, etc.
        4. Factor analysis or trait approach: statistics to describe the population

    C. Trait theorists
        1. Factor analysis: statistical technique for categorizing a variable
        2. Identify the main set of traits that describe an individual
        3. Two basic approaches:
            a. Iographic: study individuals for long periods of time
            b. Nomothetic: study groups of people at set times

    D. Early use of trait theories to identify basic human traits
        1. Catell and Eysenck; started in the 1950s and still work today
        2. Catell uses 16 basic personality traits: 16PF
        3. Eysenck: 3 main factors:
            a. Extroversion
            b. Neurotocism
            c. Psychoticism
        4. The Big Five factors:
            a. Extroversion-introversion
            b. Agreeableness vs contrariness
            c. Consciousness vs sociopathic
            d. Neuroticism
            e. Openness
        5. Alport: cardinal, central and secondary traits
            a. Trait is very enduring if not inherited
            b. Cardinal trait: dominating trait, it overwhelms personality
            c. Central traits: 3-5 basic traits that describe personality
            d. Secondary traits: distinguish the individual but don’t dominate

                    personality slides

II. Freudian theory
    A put Freud in perspective
        1. Victorian Vienna
        2. Jewish
        3. Only treated the wealthy women
        4. He was a wonderful describer of behavior
    B. basic structures of personality
        1. all three basic structures are
            a. deterministic: you behave because of them and they are determined
            b. believed in conscious awareness vs. unconscious- what we are unaware of

        2. id: basic source of energy, motivation
            a. unconscious
            b. ruled by two instincts
                1. eros: life instinct, libido
                2. thanatos: death instinct
            c. follows the pleasure principle: if it feels good, it wants to do it!
            d. not connected to reality
         3
. Superego: ego ideal, perfection seeking
            a. Ruled by the two life instincts
            b. Conscience, guilt, morality
            c. Also not connected to reality
        4. Ego: reality principle
            a. Conscious
            b. Connected to reality
            c. Mediate the id and superego

    E. Defense mechanism
        1. Means by which the ego defends itself from the battle between the id and superego
        2. Denial: the problem doesn’t exist
        3. Repression: force memories back into unconscious rather than deal with them
        4. Projection: project your feelings onto another person
        5. Displacement: act on a “safe” person rather than the object of your feelings
        6. Reaction formation: act the opposite of how you really feel
        7. Rationalization: make up excuses
        8. Intellectualization: turn the problem into an intellectual exercise
        9. Sublimation: turn an unacceptable impulse into a socially acceptable impulse

    F. Formation of personality
        1. Oral Stage: birth to about 2
            a. Main explanatory idea is how you experience pleasure and how your superego tries to control it
            b. Seek pleasure or sensory stimulation through your mouth
            c. Several steps that must occur to get through this stage
                i. Orally satisfied : breast feeding
                ii. Must learn to delay your oral gratification
            d. If you do not resolve the issues at this stage you become orally fixated
                i. Sexual pleasure is oral
                ii. Oral fixations
                iii. Sarcastic and gullible
        2. Anal stage: 2-4 years old
            a. Pleasure: anus, feces and urine
            b. Several steps:
                i. Learn that elimination feels good
                ii. Learn to delay and control elimination
                iii. Learn to organize and delay pleasure
            c. Two complications:
                i. Anal retentive: harshly toilet trained and have too much superego and fear elimination
                ii. Anal expulsive: too lax a toilet training, never learned to control elimination, too much id
        3. Phallic Stage: age 3 to 4 to about 6 or 7
            a. Developing sexual role and gender identity behaviors
            b. Pleasure is from genitalia
            c. Have “sexual’ feelings about the opposite gender parent
            d. Boys: Oedipus complex
                i. Boy child desires his mother
                ii. Castration anxiety: due to superego fear of castration by the competing “dad”
                iii. Unacceptable hate for dad forms a reaction formation where they develop appropriate gender identity
            e. Little girls
                i. Little girls suffer from penis envy
                ii. According to Freud himself, the only resolution for penis envy is to give birth to a male child
                iii. Modern Freudians or neoFreudians believe in the Electra complex
                    1. Yes, penis envy
                    2. Love for father, jealousy of mom
                    3. Resolution: marry someone like dear old dad
        4. Final stage: genital stage: adolescence
            a. Here you find out where you didn’t resolve your conflicts
            b. Problems begin

III. Neofreudians and humanists
    A Vienna circle
        1 group of Freud’s followers that broke off and formed their own group
        2. upset with the emphasis on sexuality and the neglect of other human behaviors

    B. Adler: Inferiority and compensation
        1. overwhelming goal: feel competent
            a. physically and psychologically
            b. if you feel incompetent, you have problems in life
        2. often develop inappropriate coping mechanisms: Napoleonic complex
            a. make yourself feel more competent by making others feel less competent
            b. Napoleon: tallest horse, highest hat

        .3. child birth order: clear identities based on your birth order
            a. oldest: most rule bound, most hard working, want parental approval the most- most successful and most likely to suffer from an anxiety disorder
            b middle: peacemaker or arbitrater, most left out and forgotten, most social, moderately successful in comparison to oldest, most likely to commit a crime
            c youngest: most outgoing, often are the actors or actresses or performers, moderately successful, most needy, least likely to leave home, and most immature
            d only: is most like an oldest, but more spoiled and selfish and more neurotic

    C. Carl Jung: Swiss physican
        1.several differences with Freud
            a. less emphasis on sex
            b. libido – more life energy, not sex
            c. three parts to personality:
                i. ego: conscious, “I”
                ii. personal unconscious or persona: unique “you”
                iii. collective unconscious: all the experiences of humanity that have occurred over time

        2. collective unconscious is expressed in archtypes
            a. psychically inherited tendencies to think and behave in a certain way
            b. psyche that comes from our ancestors- unconscious
            c. expressed in our writing, art, in our everyday experiences

        3. Archtypes:
            a. Self: true self, the real you
            b. Persona: public you, artificial and socially acceptable
            c. Shadow: darker aspects of your self, your evil, animal instincts that are aggressive or violent
            d. Anima or animus: feminine and masculine aspects of your personality, often expressed in animal like imagery
            e. Wise old man: spiritual wisdom
            f. Magna mater: oneness with earth, mother earth and understanding of nature
            g. god : psychic reality- projection of the final answer
            h. quaternity: ideal completeness, one with god

    D. Humanistic psychologist: Maslow
        1. humanistic psychology: believe in the essential goodness of humans
        2. all humans are good, but they may be thwarted in their self discovery, and thus their paths to goodness is slowed or blocked
        3. must give humans unconditional positive regard: we love them no matter what
        4. Maslow: hierarchy of needs
            a. describe the steps required for self actualization
            b. must achieve each lower step before you can take the next step

IV. Testing for IQ and Personality
    A in any test: need two things
        1 reliability
            a. you get the same result each time you take the test
            b. important: it says the test is testing the same trait or intelligence each time
        2. valid:
            a. the test measures what it is suppose to measure
            b. this can be problematic: well defined variable
                i. criterion validity: set standard against which our test is measured
                ii. predictive validity: does our test measure the outcome of something else
    B. tests must be: two ways to write
        1. open ended or projective test:
            a. you provide the answer
            b. open ended
            c. you introduce the information by which I test you

        2. objective test:
            a. multiple choice or T/F
            b. set answers

V. Intelligence tests
    A. Why intelligence tests?
        1. Screening device for children
        2. Albert Binet started in France
        3. WWI: the US army got ahold of this test: screening device for enlisted men
            a. Army alpha: literates
            b. Army beta: illiterates
        4. Standford university: Stanford/Binet IQ test
            a. Test kids nationwide
            b. All children are given IQ tests
            c. Use to use the standard IQ formula: MA/CA * 100
                i. Mental age: score on a test in years and months
                ii. Chronological age: how old you are in years, months, days
                iii. If MA = CA then your score is 100
                iv. Anything below 70 is mentally retarded
                v. Gifted is anywhere from 120 to 140 or 145
        5. Second series of IQ tests: Weschler series
            a. Three tests:
                i. Preschool version: WPPSI
                ii. Elementary: WISC
                iii. Adult: WAIS
            b. Several scores:
                i. Verbal score: several subtests
                ii. Spatial score: several subtest
        6. Howard Gardner: 7 intelligences and a test for these
            a. Verbal
            b. Mathematical
            c. Spatial: art
            d. Musical
            e. Kinesthetic: physical ability
            f. Interpersonality
            g. Intrapersonality

VI. Personality tests
    A. Projective tests: open ended tests
        1. You supply the answer
        2. Rorshach inkblot test
        3. Thematic apperception test: series of people pictures
   
   
B. Objective tests
        1. Get around the open ended ness of the projective tests
        2. Multiple choice or T/F questions
        3. Set answers
        4. Beck Depression Inventory
        5. MMPI: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
            a. 550 T/F questions
            b. Subtests
            c. Lie detector questions
            d. Exams answer patterns
        6. California Apperception Test and Cattell

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07/30/07 Prenatal and Physical Development

Test on Wednesday

Prenatal Slides

I. Prenatal development
    A. Gestation
        1. 280 days or 40 weeks
        2. Full term: 38-42 weeks
        3. Anything less than 36 is preterm birth
        4. Three distinct periods of pregnancy or gestation
            a. Period of the ovum
            b. Period of the embryo
            c. Period of the fetus
   
   
B. Three periods of fetal development
        1. Period of the ovum
            a. Conception to about 4-5 days post conception
            b. Implantation in the uterus
            c. Fertilized egg or ovum has to travel down the fallopian tube and attach to the uterine wall
            d. 50% of fertilizations area lost here
        2. Period of embryo
            a. Uterine attachment to about 8 weeks
            b. MOST CRITICAL period
            c. Cell differentiation
            d. 2 million % increase in size
            e. All internal and external organs are formed during this period
            f. 1 ½ inches in length
        3. Period of fetus
            a. 8 weeks to birth
            b. Virtually all organs are in place
            c. Refining, growing and weight gain
            d. Point of viability: 50% chance of survival: 20 weeks

II. When things go wrong
    A two kinds of “problems”
        1. Genetic
        2. Developmental/gestational problem
    B Genetic defects
        1. Single gene defects: takes one gene to cause the problem
        2. Multiple gene defects: more than one gene is involved
        3. Dominant gene: that gene will cause the effect
        4. Recessive gene effect: takes two
        5. Single gene defects include:
            a. Huntington’s chorea
            b. Usually fatal or very chronic illness
        6. Recessive gene defects
            a. Color blindness
            b. Hemophilia
            c. Cystic fibrosis
            d. Phetylketonuria or PKU
            e. Tay sachs
        7. Incomplete cell division
            a. By definition: not “inherited”
            b. But: causes a disruption in cell itself
            c. Most common: Down Syndrome
                i. Incomplete cell division
                ii. Typically the 21st chromosome (Trisomy 21)
               iii. Mosaicism
               iv. Relation with mom’s age
                    1. Overall 1/600 births
                    2. At age 44: 1/65 live births
        8. Most common form of mental retardation: Fragile X syndrome

   
C. Environmental effects
        1. teratogens
            a. Monster maker
            b. Any environmental agent which increases the rate of birth defect
            c. Lead: mental retardation, deafness and blindness
            d. Drugs:
                i. Illegal drugs are teratogens
                ii. Prescription drugs:
                    1. Seizure meds
                    2. Antidepressants
                    3. Blood pressure drugs
                    4. Most anything in category B or C
                iii. Alcohol
                iv. Labor and delivery drugs
                v. Maternal disease
                    1. HIV/AIDS
                    2. Syphilis/herbes
                    3. Rubella or german measles
                vi. Mom’s health
                vii. Father’s health

    D. Birthing factors:
        1. Toxemia: poisoning of the mom
        2. Gestational diabetes
        3. Placenta dysplasia: placenta separates from the uterine wall and ruptures
        4. Breech birth
        5. Anoxia: lack of oxygen at birth- birth defects

    E. Most births are normal
        1. 10% of births have a significant birth defect
        2. Boys have more birth defects and are more likely to die than girls: 48% boys/52% girls
            a. Genetics
            b. Size at birth
   
    F. How diagnosis?
        1. Amniocentesis
        2. Blood tests: AFP, etc.
        3. Chorian sampling
        4. Ultrasound
        5. Genetic sampling from parents
 

infant development slides

III. Early infant development
    A birth
        1. several stages to birthing process
            a. Early labor: last days to hours
                i. Practice contractions at first: Braxton hicks
                ii. Slowly become the real thing
                iii. Mom is walking around and starting to dilate and efface
                iv. Baby drops down and becomes engaged in the pelvis
            b. Start labor: active labor
                i. At first, irregular contractions
                ii. Not painful at first
                iii. Baby is beginning to move down the birth canal
                iv. By end: contractions that 1-2 minutes apart and begin to be painful
                v. Active labor can last up to 36 hours
            c. Transition: transition between labor and delivery
                i. Mom is fully dilated: 10 cm
                ii. Baby is in the end of the birth canal
                iii. Pushing will begin
                iv. Generally lasts less than 1 hour
            d. Delivery: pushing part
                i. First time moms: last 1-2 hours
                ii. More typically: 30 minutes or less
            f. 25% of births end up in C-section
            g. After baby is delivered, the placenta is delivered

    B. give the baby his or her first TEST: APGAR test
        1. test examines the basic health and neurological status of the infant
        2. 10 point scale:
            a. 9-10 excellent
            b. 7-8: okay
            c. 5-6 points: at high risk
            d. 3-4 points: emergency
            e. below 3 points: critical

    C. 2nd test: Brazelton test of reflexes:
        1. blink
        2. knee jerk or patellar reflex: knees ( and elbows) should respond to a sharp tap
        3. Palmar or Darwinian or hand grasp: babies hang on to anything that goes across or in their hand
        4. Babinski reflex: flex toes when the bottom of their foot is tickled
        5. Moro or startle reflex:
            a. throw arms out, then tuck them in
            b. turn their heads
            c. curl
            d. (scream)

        6. Stepping and swimming reflex
            a. If upright- they step
            b. If on belly: they swim (up to 4 months of age)
        7. Rooting and sucking reflex: turn towards anything that brushes their cheek, latch on and suck on it

IV. Physical development
    A. Development occurs: cephalocaudal
        1.  head to toe
        2.  gross to fine motor movements
        3.  babies triple their birth weight and walk in first year

    B.. developmental differences
        1. gestational age when born
        2. stimulation and environment makes a difference
        3. individual differences\

    C. developmental milestones
        1. fairly set sequence
        2. mean ages we use as guidelines for determining problems
        3. kids tend to work on one task to the neglect of others

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7/31/07 More Development

I. Language
    A. Language
        1. Symbolic system
        2. Serve 4 functions
            a. Instrumental: using language results in a behavior from another organism
            b. Stimulus for a chain of behaviors
            c. Means of communicating ideas with others of your kind
            d. Conveys meaning of abstract concepts
   
   
B. Several basic parts or units of language
        1. Phonemes: basic unit of sound
            a. Phonics
            b. Most adults produce about 100 phonemes
            c. Developmental process:
                i. Babies babble with many phonemes, not language specific
                ii. Sounds change over first year to be consistent with their primary language(s)
            d. English has about 45 phonemes
            e. Phonemes differ by language: cultural differences
        2. Morphemes: smallest unit of MEANING
            a. Usually consists of at least 2 phonemes
            b. Exceptions: “I” and “a”
            c. Prefixes and suffixes: -ing; -s
        3. Syntax: rules for combining phonemes and morphemes
            a. Grammar
            b. Rules for words
            c. Rules for sentences, paragraphs, etc….
        4. Semantic content
            a. Perhaps most important
            b. Word meaning
            c. Word meaning changes over time
            d. Word emphasis changes meaning

II. Language development
    A. language progression
        1. sounds the baby makes change over time
        2. slow emergence of language
        3. at birth: babies communicate
            a. cry: three distinct cries
            b. pain cry: sharp, loud, fast
            c. hunger/discomfort cry: loud, warm up sequence to it, speeds up as intensity grows
            d. fuss cry: slight discomfort, low intensity, not as loud
            e. control eye contact

        4. 2 mos: coo
            a. Vowel sounds
            b. Social interactions
            c. Adults react to the cooing: move to baby’s level, voices rise in pitch, speak softly, and face softens
        5. 4-6 months: add consonants to vowels
            a. Dada and baba; learn dada= daddy
            b. Mama doesn’t come till 6-7 months
            c. True babbling
        6. 12 months: first word
            a. Usually an important object in their life or an action word
            b. Mother’s ear: only family can understand
            c. Should have 5-10 words
        7. 18-20 mos: telegraphic speech
            a. 2 word utterances
            b. Carry meaning
            c. Functional but have no extra words
            d. Go car; bye daddy; me ball
        8. Functional language by age 3 to 4 years:
            a. Sentence development: 3 to 5 word sentences
            b. Overgeneralization errors: over use grammar rules
                i. I walk, I walked
                ii. I run, I runnded
                iii. 1 cat, 2 cats; 1 mouse, 2 mouses

    C. Theories of language
        1. Nature viewpoint: language is innate
            a. Noam Chomsky
            b. Language is hard wired in brain, just have to let kids express it
        2. Nurture: language is learned
            a. B.F. Skinner
            b. Kids must be taught to use language
        3. Evidence: experiments
            a. Case studies: kids who are not exposed to language in early childhood do not ever learn language
            b. Animals: teach animals OUR human language
                i. Washoe: chimp who learned ASL
                ii. Koko the gorilla: ASL
                iii. Premack: computer generated programs at Yerkes
            c. Examining animal language:
                i. Evidence of infant development
                ii. Phonemes, morphemes, syntax and semantics
                iii. Little abstract
               
III. Cognitive development
    A. Piagetian development
        1. Jean Piaget: first child development theorists to gather data
            a. No experimentation
            b. Just observed kids
        2. Cognition = active process
            a. Act of knowing
            b. Acquiring information
            c. Thinking
            d. Imagining
            e. Creating and problem solving
        3. Stage theorist: “all kids go through the same stages at the same time and same order” (Piaget was a little rigid)
        4. Child’s job: organization and adaptation

    B. Assimilation and accommodation
        1. assimilate: take new information and assimilate or organize it into existing schemas
            a. add another example to your existing schema or concept
            b. “dog”: brown dog, now add white dog
        2. accommodation: take new information and it changes our existing schema or concept: adapt or change our definition
            a. see a “dog”; mom says, “no, it’s a cat”
            b. add a category of “cat”

    C. Stages of cognitive development
        1. Sensori motor development:
            a. Birth to about 2
            b. Integrate and build on their reflexes
            c. Cause and effect
            d. Object permanence:
                i. Out of sight does not mean it doesn’t exists
                ii. Steps: initially- no permanence; then partially cover, then cover, then move object
        2. Preoperational period:
            a. Preschool years: ages 2 to about 6
            b. Transition in thinking
            c. Ego centric:
                i. Believe the world revolves round them: they are the center of the universe
                ii. Self = everyone else
                iii. Believe that inanimate objects have feelings
            d. Important language steps:
                i. Symbolic functioning: get symbols and language
                ii. Deferred imitiation
                iii. Symbolic play
            e. Mental operations:
                i. Begin to classify objects
                ii. Very concrete
                iii. Can’t manipulate numbers mentally
                iv. No reversibility of set
                v. No reciprocity
                vi. No conservation
                vii. Rudimentary seriation
        3. Concrete operations: age 6 to about 11 or 12
            a. Less egocentric and may become “bleeding heart liberal”- very empathetic
            b. Gain better control of mental operations:
                i. Mental capacity to do math (but not abstract)
                ii. Have reversibility of set
                iii. Have conservation
                iv. Begin to do experiments and higher writing
        4. Formal operations:
            a. Ages 11 or 12 through adulthood
            b. Only about 75-80% of the population masters this stage
            c. Deal with the abstract
                i. Higher math
                ii. Theoretical concepts
                iii. Logic; reasoning
            d. Flexibility in thinking
            e. Thinking styles
                i. Pessimistic thinkers: expect the worse to happen
                ii. Optimistic thinkers: expect the best to happen

IV. Social development
    A newborns
        1. Even at birth: social
            a. Turn to familiar voices
            b. Prefer mom’s and dad’s face
            c. Imitate facial expressions
            d. By 6-7 weeks: first social smile
            e. Crying as communication
            f. Erik Ericson: trust vs. mistrust in infancy
        2. Develop 2 important fears:
            a. Stranger anxiety
            b. Separation anxiety
            c. Forms the basis for attachment

    B. Attachment
        1. strong and enduring bond between two humans: love
        2. critical period for attachment: first 3 years of life
        3. the two fears develop across several months: stages
            a. preattachment phase: 0-2 mos
                1. any caretaker will do
                2. want: love and comfort

            b. Initial attachment phase: 2-6-8 months
                i. Around three months: recognize familiar/unfamiliar people
                ii. Puzzlement but no fear; wariness
            c. 6-8 months: strong attachment
                i. Now the two fears come out in force
                ii. Separation anxiety: being separated from caretaker
                iii. Stranger anxiety is fear of strangers (kids’ point of view)
                iv. Social   referencing: look at parent to judge the reaction
            d. Fear dissipates and then comes back at 12 mos, 18 mos and about 2 years
        4. Different KINDS of kids in terms of attachment:
            a. Test: strange situation test
            b. 90% of children are securely attached: strong 2 fears, use parents as anchors
            c. 7% of kids: anxiously attached
                i. Nervous nellies
                ii. Cry when parent leaves, but never seem completely comfortable in strange situation
            d. Relatively rare: avoidant attached kid: show no attachment to any adult
                i. Avoid caretaker when afraid
                ii. Show inappropriate comforting techniques
                iii. Signal of a problem:
                    1. Kid: autism or other developmental problem
                    2. Parent: depression or drug/alcohol abuse

    C. Research on attachment:
        1. Animal studies: Harry Harlow
            a. Behavioral researcher working with rhesus monkeys in the 1950’s through 1980s
            b. Wanted to show that attachment was only due to need for food
            c. Separated newborn monkeys from mom
                i. Alone in the cage
                ii. Wire mother only (food)
                iii. Wire mother (food) + terry cloth mom
            d. Results:
                i. Alone babies mostly died before adulthood
                ii. Wire only: severe developmental problems
                iii. Wire + cloth: severe but not as severe developmental problems
                iv. Cloth mom was used as comfort
                v. Not only is food important, but physical comfort and contact is critical for development

    2. Human examples:
        a. Bowlby studies: orphanages right after WWII
            i. Infants who were picked up and carried developed b etter than those who weren’t
            ii. Stimulation: mobiles, mittens, etc., improve development
            iii. Today: Chinese vs. Eastern European orphanages
        b. Prison study: compared babies of prisoners who were allowed to stay in prison with mom vs. those put in orphanage
        c. Premature and ill babies:
            i. Cut mortality rate by almost 50% by allowing sick babies to be touched: kangarooing
            ii. Grandparent program: hire senior citizens
    3. Data show humans need: continuity of care and consistency of care

V. Adolescence and adulthood
    A adolescents
        1. Two major characteristics
            a. Idealistic rebellion: they are going to fix the world
            b. Ego centricism: they are self centered- feel they are on stage (even in a bad way)
        2. Parent/adolescent conflicts
            a. Parents are reflecting on their lives, losing sexuality
            b. Adolescents are preparing for their future and beginning their sexual path
            c. Crises:
                i. Parents want to cling, keep kids near
                ii. Kids want to get away from family- autonomy
                iii. Parents who are jealous; competition
                iv. Emotional adjustments on the part of both- parents must take lead

    B. dating and friends
        1. preschool years: same sex friends or whom ever is nearest
        2. grade school : opposite sex is “bad”
        3. late grade school/middle school/junior high: interest in opposite sex
            a. groups of mixed gender
            b. little individual pairing off

        4. By high school: begin to pair off
            a. Several purposes to dating
                i. Recreation
                ii. Companionship
                iii. Status’
                iv. Personal and social growth
                v. Sexual exploration
                vi. Mate selection
                vii. Intimacy
            b. Late adolescence/early adulthood
                i. Pair off more permanently
                ii. Longer relationships
                iii. Eventually: marriage
                    1. Average age women: 24
                    2. Average age men: 26

    D. adulthood
        1. adults need socialization and attachment as well
        2. not just for sex, also for intimacy
        3. early in marriage: developing the pattern for intimacy
        4. what makes a happy marriage: like each other
        5. children come along: disrupt the intimate relationship:
            a. like having another boy friend or girl friend move in on your spouse
            b. pre child: in a fire you save your spouse; post child: in a fire you save- the baby
            c. relation with spouse becomes different

        6. Late in life: alone again
            a. Elderly are very lonely
            b. Older folk need love and comfort as much as babies
            c. Most senior citizens are sexually active
            d. Even old people need to be hugged

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8/2/07 Social Psychology and Stress

I. Social Psychology
    A. Social psych
        1. Instead of studying individuals, you study groups of people
        2. Sociology is interested in the behavior of the group
        3. Social psych is interested in the behavior of the individual within the group

    B. Social behavior is
        1. Homogenous
        2. Why?
            a. Random chance
            b. Disposition (personality) plus affiliation: like people hang out together
            c. Social influence

    C. Social perceptions:
        1. How we decide that people have certain qualities
        2. Impressions of others
            a. First impressions are critical- first impression “sets” how you think about someone long term
            b. Primacy effect
            c. Recency effect
        3. Schemas:
            a. Collection of concepts and impressions about someone or something
            b. Social schema
            c. Schema about a group influences your impression about an individual from that group

    D. Attributions
        1. Place causes on individual behavior
        2. 2 basic attributions
            a. Dispositional: part of the person
            b. Situational: the cause is from the situation or environment
        3. Several ways to attribute causes
            a. Social desireability
            b. Non normative effects: is it unusual for that person’s group?
            c. Non common effects: is it unusual for that person
            d. Free choice
        4. Three major errors that humans make:
            a. Fundamental attribution error:
                i. Your good behaviors = dispositional
                ii. Your bad behaviors = situational
                iii. Other’s good behavior: situational
                iv. Other’s bad behavior = dispositional
            b. False consensus bias: we think that others agree with us!
            c. Illusion of control:
                i. After a bad experience- we feel we should have prevented it
                ii. We attribute a higher degree of control to our behavior than we really have
        5. Explanation for illusions:
            a. Being aware of internal feelings/emotions/thoughts
            b. Actors vs observers
                i. Actors acted out a scene of violence
                ii. Both actors and observers were asked to make attributions as to why the violent person was violent
                iii. Observers: dispositional
                iv. Actors: situational

    E. Attitude
        1. Attitude is your working schema about something
        2. Attitudes can
            a. Alter behavior
            b. Elicit behavior without thinking: automaticity
            c. Change with changes in social situation
        3. Attitudes are important because
            a. Increase understanding of a situation
            b. Social identification
            c. Social adjustment
            d. Impression management
            e. Value expression
            f. Ego-defensive
        4. Cognitive dissonance
            a. Behavior and attitude disagree
            b. Creates a discomfort
                i. Physical comfort
                ii. Psychological discomfort
            c. One or other has to change:
                i. Which ever one is stronger
                ii. Which ever one is more supported by the social group
        5. Different ways to manipulate attitudes and schemas
            a. Elaboration likelihood model: two routes
                i. Central route:
                    1. Use on motivated people
                    2. Directly work on attitude
                ii. Peripheral route
                    1. Unmotivated people
                    2. Indirect: make the change attractive
            b. Two procedures or approaches
                i. Foot in the door effect: start small and work your way up
                ii. Door in the face effect: start ridiculous and get more reasonable

II. Altruism and helping behavior
    A. Altruism
        1. helping others for no apparent gain to yourself
            a. interesting assumption among biologists and many psychologists: optimizing organisms
            b. Optimizing organisms work for the most gain for the least effort
            c. Why altruism?
            d. We probably don’t: altruism can occur on a group level

    B. Bystander intervention
        1. Altruism is a bystander intervening or helping someone else
        2. Kitty Genovessee (1964): murdered in plain sight of hundreds of people
        3. Replicate in the lab: simulation
            a. Usually is a smoking room
            b. People waiting: some of them are confederates (they are data takers)
        4. When do people act:
            a. When they perceive they have authority
            b. When children are involved or other people who are deemed “at risk”
            c. People are more likely to save people who look like themselves
            d. To increase the likelihood of a taking action: make a connection between the individual who is threatened and ourselves
   
   
C.  Conformity and compliance
        1. Compliance is obeying another’s command
            a. How compliant you are depends on how much authority you think the commander has
            b. Milgram compliance study
                i. 1963
                ii. Teacher and a learner (learner was a confederate)
                iii. Teacher shocked the learner each time an error was made (or so the teacher thought)
                iv. Examining compliance: 65% of people killed the learner (or so they thought)
                v. Milgram’s authority over the students: replicated it with gang members- no compliance
        2. Comply with a group
            a. Follow the group and behave like they do
            b. Conformity: you don’t want to stick out of your group- belongingness
            c. Asch: line study;
            d. Stanford Prison study:
                i. 24 male Stanford undergrads
                ii. Week long experiment
                iii. Simulate a prison in the classroom wing: prisoners and guards: RANDOMLY assigned
                iv. Students began to act their roles
                v. Stop the experiment after 2 days

    D. . prejudice and discrimination
        1. prejudice is a negative and unjustifiable and inflexible attitude about someone or something
        2. discrimination: BEHAVIOR based on the prejudice
        3. in groups vs out groups
            a. ingroup is your group
                1. attitudes and beliefs are positive about your group
                2. defend our ingroup
            b. outgroup = other guys
                1. attitudes and beliefs are generally negative about the outgroup
                2. protect ourselves from the out group
            c. when resources tighten and competition increases, the tension between ingroups and out groups increases
    4. How change?
        a. Reduce frustration and scape goating
        b. Reduce the differences between in groups and outgroups
            i. Make them likeable to eachother
            ii. Start early before the schemas are set
        c. Blue eye/brown eye study

III. Stress
    A. Behavioral medicine
        1. New area for psychology
        2. Prevention rather than intervention
        3. Help people be healthy rather than ill

    B. Stress:
        1. Stress is a reaction to demands placed on you
        2. Physical and psychological (body doesn’t care!)
        3. Complex interaction between physiology and your mental state
        4. Involve your fear-flight-fight system (sympathetic nervous system)
        5. All stress can be bad
            a. Eustess = positive
            b. Distress = negative
            c. All can hurt you

    C. Hans Selye: first to identify “stress”
        1. General Adaptation syndrome or GAS
        2. Three stages:
            a. Alarm stage: short term, days to weeks
            b. Resistance stage: weeks to years: chronic stress stage
            c. Exhaustion: collapse and even death

        3. Richard Lazurus: redefined GAS to a more cognitive interpretation
            a. Thoughts and attitudes make or break the reaction to stress
            b. Our own cognitions interact with physical stress and make it better or worse
            c. Cognitive appraisal or framing of the stressor

    D. Ways to cognitively appraise our stress:
        1. Holmes and Rahe stress scale
            a. Listing of life events and “points” total
            b. Anything over 100 increases your risk of injury or illness by 50%
            c. Anything over 300 is critical
            d. It’s the little stressors that add up that can impact your stress levels

        2. Coping mechanisms
            a. Primary appraisal style:
                1. How decide if it is a stressor
                2. Internalizer or externalizer
            b. Secondary appraisal: how you deal with it
                1. Support system?
                2. Outlets to resolve your anxiety and stress? Recreation
                3. Internalizing and anxiety: worry
                4. Type A vs Type B individuals
                    a. Type A person is driven
                        1. More agitated
                        2. Can’t sit still, have to be active
                        3. Have more stress related health problems
                    b. Type B person is laid back
                        1. Less agitated, rarely angry
                        2. Relaxed, not worrying
                        3. Fewer health problems
    D. Health Effects of stress
        1. immune reaction: your body reacts immunological reaction to stressors
            a. psychoimmunology
            b. when stressed:
                1. brain chemicals: NE, Ach, DA; serotonin is often reduced
                2. corticosteroids are increased and released in mass amounts
        2. these 2 reactions result in an immune reaction
            a. lymphocytes- T-cell release are activated
            b. attach to antigens which are markers for intrusion cells
        3
. With stress: body overacts initially, then underracts
            a. Identify normal cells as intruders
            b. Uses up all the lymphocytes/T-cells so your immune system is depleted
            c. Autoimmune disorders:
                1. Disorders where the immune system attacks the body
                2. M.S.
                3. Asthma
                4. Fibromyalgia
                5. Schleroderma
                6. Allergies
                7. Lupus
              d. Wear out our bodies
                1. Sympathetic nervous system arousal: increased heart rate, BP, respiration, etc.
                2. Wear out heart, lungs, stomach, etc.
                        a. Heart disease
                        b. Diabetes
                        c. Lung disorders
                3. Opportunist disease
                        a. Cancer
                        b. More susceptible to diseases
                 4. Less able to fight off the invasive disease

    F. Coping mechanisms
        1. Identify our stressors
            a. Correctly ID source of stress
            b. Correctly ID the type of stress
                1. Changeable
                2. Unchangeable
       2. Deal with it
            a. Changeable: get rid of the stressor
            b. Unchangeable: learn to cope
                1. Offset the stress with a healthy lifestyle
                2. Learn to relax
                3. laughter

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8/6/07 The minor disorders and  Depression/Bipolar disorder

I. Mental Illness or Psychopathology
    A. Beware of medical student syndrome
        1. After reading about a disorder, you are sure you have it!
        2. Difference between a “normal” person and one with a disorder is the magnitude and frequency of symptoms
        3. Older terms of neurosis vs. psychosis
            a. Not used today
            b. Neurotic individuals know that there is something odd about their behavior
            c. Psychotic individuals have a break from reality and are unaware that their behavior is radically different

   
B. How do we define psychopathology?
        1. Mind or brain pathology or disease
        2. Even the title implies a disease or disorder
        3. Statistical model: behavior is outside the normal distribution of behavior
        4. Social desireability model: behaviors are outside societal norms
        5. Self help model: are the behaviors interfering in that person’s life
        6. Medical model: you are ill, or have a disease process       

   
C. Where the cause for the psychopathology comes from
        1. Psychoanalytic model
            a. Problem with your ego defending against the id and superego
            b. Result of defense mechanisms
            c. Talk therapy approach
        2.. Cognitive behavioral approach
            a. Have abnormal thoughts and behaviors
            b. Reinforcers have been inappropriate or reinforced inappropriate thoughts and behaviors
            c. Treatment is going to be talk and behavior
        3. Humanistic therapies
            a. Injured psyche
            b. Haven’t been able to develop full potential
            c. Help guide you to existential full potential
            d. Talk therapy- focus is on you
        4. Organic perspective: medical model
            a. Assumption: you have a disease or disorder in your brain
            b. Diathesis stress model:
                i. Takes the disorder process
                ii. PLUS stressors
                iii. Equals disease or psychopathology
  
   
D. DSM-IVR
        1. Diagnostic and statistical manual, 4th edition revised
            a. Produced by the American Psychiatric association
            b. Committee
        2. Divide your mental illness along three axes:
            a. Axis I: primary diagnosis (-es)
            b. Axis II: contributing disorders: physical or mental disorders (mental retardation)
            c. Axis III: more contributing factors, more likely psychosocial
        3. Functional level: level of functioning scale- given a number which suggests your daily living ability

II. Anxiety disorders
    A. Anxiety
        1. Sense of impending doom or dread
        2. Afraid that something bad is going to happen
        3. Physical symptoms: Sympathetic nervous system arousal
        4. last at least 1 month
        5. 6-10% of population has general anxiety at any 1 time
        6. Most people will have one or more episodes in their life
   
   
B. Panic disorder
        1. Advanced anxiety
        2. 4 or more panic attacks within a 28 day period
        3. 1-2% of population at any one time has the disorder (most if not all people will have at least 1 panic attack)
        4. Attack of anxiety:
            a. Overwhelming tremendous feeling of fear
            b. Feelings of heart attack/asmtha attack, other physicial symptoms
            c. Feel like you will die
            d. May or may not be situation specific
   
   
C. agoraphobia
        1. Fear of “open” places
        2. Fear of having a panic attack
        3. Avoid any place where you might have had a panic attack
        4. Intense fear of any place
        5. 1% of population
   
   
D .simple phobias
        1. Afraid of a specific situation or thing
        2. Irrational fear and you know it is irrational
         3. 15% of population has a clinically significant phobia at any one time- interfere in your daily life
        4. Learned or modeled

    E. Social phobias
        1. Fear of social setting
        2. Public speaking
        3. Performance anxiety
        4. More common in men than women: bathroom anxiety

    F. Obsessive compulsive disorder
        1. Outgrowth of an anxiety disorder
        2. Defense against anxiety
        3. Obsession: pervasive thought
        4. Compulsion: pervasive and repetitive action
        5. Ritualized and rigid thinking
        6. Often includes counting or superstitious behavior
        7. Engage in the behavior to keep the bad away
   
G. Post traumatic stress disorder
        1. Observed in people who have experienced a profound trauma
        2. Classic symptoms
            a. Re experience the event
            b. Avoid stimuli that remind them of the event
            c. General numbing of affect
            d. Hyper aroused: trigger happy to noise, strong startle
            e. Symptoms must persist for at least 1 month after the event
 

III. Dissociative disorders
    A dissociative disorder
        1. You diss- associate from reality
        2. Part of you or situationally you separate yourself from the situation
        3. Usually in reaction to a trauma

    B Psychoenic amnesia
        1. Most common of the uncommon dissociative disorders
        2. Sudden loss of memory
        3. Loss of memory for the event itself or time period around the event
        4. Repression
        5. Protective for the individual
            a. Often memories come back slowly over time
            b. Sometimes memory floods
            c. Not due to physical memory decay- no brain “damage”
   
C Psychogenic fugue
        1. Combination of amnesia with flight
        2. Lose yourself and you run away
        3. NO planning or foresight
        4. Take on a new identity
   
D. Multiple personality disorder
        1. controversial: not sure whether this exists or not
        2. individual develops separate personalities that may or may not know about the others
        3. Sybil, etc. were fake
        4. isolating the trauma and particularly the abuse
            a. one personality is abused and suffers the consequences
            b. develop a second personality that IS NOT abused and doesn’t feel the effects

IV. Somatoform disorders
    A. body disorders
        1 abnormality about how you view your body
        2 very real symptoms but not always with a known physical cause

    B. somatization disorder
        1. Second in pervasiveness across the population to anxiety
        2. Stress disorder
        3. Individuals with physical complaints but the symptoms are due to stress
            a. Head ache
            b. Stomach ache
            c. Digestive disorders
            d. Back pain
  
 
C. hypochondriasis
        1. individual is fearful of getting a disease
        2. reader’s digest disorder
        3. problem is the fear of getting the disorder and the treatment seeking behavior
        4. bizarre form: Munchhausen’s by Proxy
            a. munchhausen: make yourself sick for attention
            b. by proxy: make a family member, typically child ill and then save them

    D. conversion disorder
        1. disorder in which the individual has a developed a nonworking limb or sensory organ
        2. leg or arm or eyes don’t work
        3. NO known cause, defies medical logic
        4. glove anesthesia
        5. la belle indifference- they don’t care
        6. occurs after a traumatic event, it may be a form of repression or self punishment

V. Personality disorders
    A. definition
        1 malfunctioning personalilty
            a. Odd or eccentric
            b. Maladaptive
            c. Interfering in your life or other’s life
        2 problem: unless the individual is bothered, there is no impetus to get better
        3. Grouped around clusters or groups of behaviors and symptoms
            a. Highly rigid in personality characteristics
            b. Resistant to change
            c. Poor prognosis
  
 
B eccentric or odd cluster
        1. Paranoid personality
            a. Your are suspicious of others and think everyone is out to get you
            b. Mistrustful and envious
            c. Hypersensitive
            d. Difficulty getting along with others
            e. Avoid emotions and intimacy
        2. Schizoid personality
            a. Cold, aloof, socially isolated
            b. Frazier Crane
            c. Humorless and indifferent to praise and criticism
            d. Trouble forming intimate relationships
        3. Schizotypal personality
            a. Border line schizophrenia
            b. Social isolation, often a- motivational
            c. Very self centered or egocentric
            d. Oddities or eccentricities in thought, perception, speech or behavior
  
 
C dramatic emotional and erractic cluster
        1 histrionic personality
            a. overly dramatic
            b. self indulgent
            c. manipulative and inconsiderate
            d. self centered
            e. dependent on others
        2 narcissistic personality
            a. grandiose sense of self importance
            b. pre-occupied with fantasies of their greatness
            c. childish demands for attention
            d. like to be center of attention
   
D. odd but potentially dangerous category
        1. antisocial personality disorder
            a. no conscience
            b. lack the ability to know right from wrong other than getting caught
            c. life history of issues
                1. early contact with law
                2. three important “markers”
                    a. animal torture
                    b. fire setting
                    c. bed wetting

            d. most people with sociopathic tendencies find a job that supports their tendencies
        2. borderline personality disorder
            a. usually a combination of many personality disorders
            b. overwhelming characteristic is a need for attention
            c. depression and moodiness
            d. impulsive and act out
 

VI. Affective disorders
    A. mood disorders
        1. problems regulating your mood
        2. abnormally high or low moods
        3. typically three diagnoses
            a. depression
            b. mania
            c. bipolar disorder
   
B mania
        1. rare
        2. typically diagnosed as schizophrenia rather than just mania
        3. abnormal highs
            a incredible energy
            b lack of sleep
            c delusions: grand plans
            d flight of ideas: they think like they are on speed
        4. levels of mania
            a. hypomania: low level
                i. extroversion, uninhibited
                ii. overly confident, but lack skills to go with confidence
                iii. dominate conversation
                iv. unreliable
            b. acute mania:
                i. attempt to display your “superior” abilities
                ii. defensive when thwarted
                iii. engage in bizarre behavior
                iv. become delirious- experience hallucinations
            c. psychotic mania
                i. psychotic
                ii. not connected to reality
                iii. experience delusions and hallucinations
                iv. no sleep, no eating, they just running
   
C depression
        1. basic symptoms
            a. prolonged feeling of sadness (at least 1 month)
            b. low self esteem
            c. sense of worthlessness
            d. seeking death
            e. eating/sleeping disturbances
            f. agitation
            g. difficulty concentrating
            h. any age
        2. levels of depression
            a. dysthymia:
                i. low mood
                ii. low level depression
                iii. typically there is a known cause
                iv. tends to resolve itself
            b. simple depression
                i. most of the symptoms
                ii. may or may not be a known cause
                iii. still engage in most daily life activities, but lost enjoyment
            c. acute depression
                i. begin to show inactivity and withdrawal
                ii. daily life begins to be disrupted
                iii. episodes of inappropriate affect
                iv. most suicidal
            d. depressive stupor
                i. lose most behavior
                ii. completely withdraw
                iii. typically curl up in fetal position and just lie there
        3. two causes
            a. reactive depression
                i. environmental
                ii. reacting to a terrible situation in your life
                iii. resolveable
            b. endogenous depression
                i. familial if not genetic
                ii. family clusters
                iii. diathesis stress model: a bad situation turned on the depression
                iv. long term
 
 
D. Bipolar disorder
        1. have episodes of mania and depression
        2. generally, the shifts are months or more apart, even just be one shift
        3. onset in late teens/early 20’s
        4. family history typically
        5. most individuals tend to be more depressed or more manic
        6. treatment is interesting:
            a. appears to be a regulatory disorder in the brain, much like diabetes
            b. don’t produce right levels of DA and serotonin
            c. treatment is to alter the tonicity in the extracellular fluid in the brain
                1. Lithium chloride
                2. antiseizure medication
                3. during a depressive episode, may want concurrent treatment with a low level antidepressant

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8/7/07 Schizophrenia

I. Schizophrenia
    A. Definition
        1. This is NOT split personality disorder or multiple personality disorder
        2. Schizophrenic has ONE personality
        3. Split from reality
        4. Most debilitating and least treatable of all mental disorders
            a. About 2% of the population
            b. Cross cultural
            c. Suggests that this may be a genetic defect
            d. Age of onset is late teens early 20’s: most likely time to see first breakdown is frosh/soph year in college
        5. Extreme disruptions in thoughts, emotions and behaviors
        6. Distinguish from other disorders by behavior pattern:
            a. Lack of contact with reality
            b. Split between thoughts and emotions
            c. Extremely maladaptive behavior
            d. Speech patterns
        7. Generally see a core of symptoms (primary symptoms) with secondary symptoms
            a. Positive symptoms: addition of bizarre behavior
            b. Negative symptoms: loss of normal behavior

   
B. Primary symptoms:
        1. Negative symptoms
            a. Loss of affect
            b. Develop amotivational syndrome: lose motivation
            c. Loss of self help skills
        2. Positive symptoms
            a. Disturbances of thought
            b. Disturbances of perception
            c. Disturbances of affect
        3. Disturbance of thought
            a. Delusions: false beliefs which are not altered by contrary evidence
            b. Delusions of grandeur: think they are very important people
            c. Delusions of persecution: delusion that someone is trying to harm you or get you
            d. Somatic delusions:
                i. Delusions of the body state
                ii. Invisible, stomach is made of glass, etc.
            e. Delusions of influence:
                i. Believe that radios or TVs or other devices are sending messages to them
                ii. Others are controlling your behavior
            f. Delusions of reference
                i. Delusion that others are talking about you
                ii. President includes you in his Presidential Address
            g. Delusions of nihilism
                i. Believe they are dead or an alien
                ii. Delusion that reality doesn’t exist, there is their own reality
        4. Disturbances of perception
            a. Hallucinations:
                i. Most commonly are auditory: hear voices
                ii. Tactile hallucinations: feel things crawling on them
                iii. Less common are visual
            b. Loosening of associations
                i. Still some degree of logic
                ii. Input is very bad
                iii. Word salad: words are scrambled
                iv. Clang associations: you can tell where the logic shifted
                v. Neologisms
        5. Loss of affect
            a. Slowly lose affect
            b. Become expressionless and eventually catatonic
        6. Disturbances of speech
            a. Develop echolalia: echo speech
            b. Mutism in advanced stages
        7. Social withdrawal
            a. Consequence than a cause
            b. Prefer to be alone and away from social situations
            c. Probably due to their inability to deal with social situations
  
 
C. Three stages of disease process
        1. Prodromal stage:
            a. Early stages
            b. Characterized by social withdrawal, flattened affect, poor motivation
            c. Biggest cue: loss of self help skills
            d. Typically late adolescence
        2. Active stage:
            a. Typically results in a hospitalization
            b. Major positive symptoms appear
            c. Behavior is inappropriate, self destructive and represents a huge change in personality
        3. Residual phase:
            a. Remission
            b. Symptoms have dissipated
            c. Considered never cured

II. Types of schizophrenia
    A diagnosis is more an art than a science
        1. General symptoms that could also be many other problems
        2. Psychiatry and psychology are in their infancy….we don’t always have good ID and treatment

  
B Paranoid schizophrenic
        1. Paranoia
        2. Fearful, delusions of persecution
        3. Often have delusions of gradeur
        4. Highest functioning: most logical and have the best self help skills
        5. Have a potential for violence
            a. Violence comes from defending themselves from the perceived persecution
            b. Reacting logically to an illogical threat
 
  C
. disorganized or hebephrenic schizophrenia
        1. loosening of associations
        2. lack of social skills/self care
        3. delusions and hallucinations are often sexual or religious
        4. infantile behavior
        5. silly
 
   D
. Catatonic schizophrenia
        1. advanced stage, typically
        2. extreme psychomotor disturbances
            a. no movement followed by
            b. violent episodes
            c. no warning
        3. catatonic stupor: remain stationary and even can show waxy flexibility
        4. SIB: self injurious behavior: hurt themselves and if thwarted, hurt you
        5. can be dangerous because of their unpredictability

    E. Undifferentiated
        1. Hell if I know category
        2. Many symptoms of schizophrenia, but they are not clearly one type
 
     F
. Residual category
        1. Addendum to your diagnosis
        2. Added to your regular diagnosis, but indicates no active symptoms at the present time

III. Treatment options?
    A first treatment: Medication
        1. Know that this disorder is the result of overactive DA system
            a. Not sure if they are overproducing DA
            b. If DA system is hypersensitive
            c. Or other DA dysfunction
        2. Traditional treatment: typical antipsychotics
            a. Thorazine, mellaril, serentil, navane
            b. Reduce DA in the brain
            c. Produces reduction in symptoms
        3. Problem with typical antipsychotics: Tardive dyskinesia
            a. Develop parkinson’s like symptoms
            b. Tremors, pillrolling, shuffle
            c. Affect speech, lip movements, eatng and drinking
            d. It is likely permanent
            e. Diarrhea, stomach upset, head ache and thinking is slowed, sleepy
        4. Atypical antipsychotics
            a. Risperidone/risperidal, clonopine, olanzapine, etc.
            b. Act more directly on the DA neuron
            c. Side effects are just as bad if not worse:
                i. Take longer to appear
                ii. Same as a typical
                iii. Decimates white blood cells
  
 
B. alternative
        1. cognitive behavior therapy WITH drug treatment
        2. schizophrenics have an absence of social skills: lack appropriate behavior
            a. during a critical time in young adulthood/late adolescence, the symptoms appeared
            b. never learned “normal”
            c. replace and teach appropriate coping skills

        3. Diathesis stress model: being stressed elicits another active stage of schizophrenia

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8/8/07 Treatment of Mental Illness

I. Treating mental illness and mental disorders
    A. modify our language
        1. difference between
            a. individuals seeking treatment for a specific adjustment issue
            b. individuals with full blown mental illnesses

        2. therapies will differ depending on the level of needs
            a. short term therapy
            b. longer term therapy
            c. permanent basis therapy

    B. Who does therapy?
        1. psychologist
            a. licensed counseling or clinical psychologist
            b. MS or MA: limited practice
            c. PhD or PsyD
                i. PhD is technically a research degree
                ii. PsyD is a purely clinical degree

            d. counseling or clinical
                i. counseling: deals with less severe issues
                ii. clinical deals with more severe

            e. CAN NOT prescribe meds at this time

        2. Psychiatrist:
            a. Medical doctor first
            b. Specialization is in psychiatry
            c. Generally 1 psychiatrist for a large number of psychologists in a practice
            d. Mostly prescribe drugs

        3. Social workers
            a. Degree in social work
            b. MSW most likely
            c. Focus more on family dynamics
            d. Cannot prescribe drugs

      4. Psychiatric nurses
            a. MSN in psychiatric nursing
            b. Usually in an inpatient setting
            c. Can also do private practice
            d. IF they are a licensed nurse practitioner, they can prescribe meds

        5. psychoanalyst:
            a. any of the above
            b. who gets specialized post-grad training in psychotherapy (Freudian or neoFreudian) techniques

    C. Where is therapy done?
        1. mental hospitals or mental health units (wards)
            a. stand alone institution (state or private)
            b. unit within a hospital setting

        2. mental health clinic
        3. group homes or halfway houses
        4. private offices

    D. What happens when you go to therapy?
        1. initial stage
            a. develop a relationship with therapist (and the client)
            b. assess symptoms and make a treatment plan

        2. start treatment
            a. many different kinds
            b. long term or short term depending on
                i. treatment plan
                ii. type of therapy
                iii. type of problem

II. Types of therapies
    A. Behavior therapies
        1. focus on changing observable and measurable behaviors
        2. ABC’s of behavior
            a. Antecedents or precursors
            b. Actual behavior
            c. Consequences
            d. History of the behavior
        3. rearrange the contingencies to support appropriate behavior

    B. Cognitive therapies:
        1. combined behavior therapy focusing on thoughts rather than behavior
        2. focus on ABC’s
        3. Albert Ellis: Rational Emotive therapy or RET
             a. Teach you to think rationally in emotional situation
             b. Replace irrational coping strategies with rational coping strategies

        4. three strategies
            a. self downing: put downs
            b. hostility and rage
            c. low frustration tolerance

        5. cognitive restructuring: reframe the problem

    C. psychodynamic therapies or psychoanalysis
        1. insight oriented: want to uncover issues in your unconscious
        2. two major techniques
            a. dream analysis
                i. latent content: symbolic meaning
                ii. manifest content: concrete

            b. free association:
                i. client talks freely
                ii. therapist’s job is to make meaning out of the talk

        3. problems that emerge particularly out of this kind of therapy
            a. resistance: client refuses to discuss the problem or avoids the problem
            b. transferences:
                 i. client begins to feel towards the therapist the feelings they feel about an important person in their life
                ii. fall in love, hate, angry

            c. counter-transference when the therapist has feeling back (if severe counter transference, the therapist should end the relationship)

    D. humanistic therapy
        1. client centered therapy
            a. client has thwarted self actualization, therapist’s goal is to restart the client on the path to self actualization
            b. incongruence between their real self and their ideal self

        2. several critical techniques
            a. genuineness
            b. rephrasing technique
            c. true interest in getting people better
            d. empathy: understand client’s feelings
                i. understand but not accept
                ii. “I understand you felt angry, but it is not okay to hit people”

        3. Gestalt or confrontive therapy
            a. Form of humanism
            b. Confront the individual with their irrationalities

    E. Pharmacology
        1. Schizophrenia
            a. Most common and first approach is through drugs
            b. Too much dopamine (we don’t know why, but its too much)
            c. Antipsychotic drug
                i. Thorazine or stellazine, navane, serentil
                ii. Atypicals: newer drugs like respiridone (risperidol)
                iii. Side effects: tardive dyskinesia- causes parkinson’s like effects

            d. behavior and some cognitive therapy focusing on life skills and social skills

        2. Mood disorders and primarily depression
            a. Most common disorder
            b. Wide acting drugs: ]
                i. Affect norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine
                ii. Elavil, amitrytalline
                iii. Problem: wide acting

        3. more specific treatments
            a. anxiety based depression: Serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors or SSRI’s (prozac, lexapro, Zoloft)
           
b. lack of energy based depression: NE: NSRI like effexor; welbutrin
           
c. lack of motivation with lack of energy: DA agonist with NSRI
           
d. other option: anxiolytic like valium, Librium, ativan (problem is that they are highly addictive)
            
e. replace inappropriate coping responses with appropriate coping responses

            f. http://www.crazymeds.org : GOOD WEBSITE FOR READING ABOUT THESE DRUGS!

    F. work on the brain
        1. electro convulsive shock therapy or ECT
            a. only used for depression now
            b. used to be used for schizophrenia and it was completely worthless
            c. control-alt-del to the brain

        2. transcranial magnetic stimulation
            a. electrical stimulator from chest to your brain
            b. unit is implanted in your chest
            c. when you feel depressed, you deliver a mild shock to your brain
            d. also use for epilepsy

        3. other surgeries (Not used anymore in general)
            a. frontal lobotomies
                i. sever the connections between the frontal lobe and limbic system
                ii. problem: lost ALL emotions

            b. amygdalectomies or brain sectioning

    G. other types of therapies
        1. group therapy: therapy conducted with a group of people
        2. family therapy: focuses on the family and NOT just the individual with the mental illness
        3. self help groups
        4. combination therapies and in fact MOST therapists use a combination of approaches

 

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OLD LECTURES

5/22/06  Introduction, history and ethics

I. What is psychology?
    A. Layperson’s definition?
        1. study human behavior
        2. help people with mental problems
        3. study animals and their behavior
        4. treat animals

    B. psychology as a science
        1. use scientific procedures
        2. scientific method
            a. first create an hypothesis
            b. test the hypothesis
            c. reformulate if you were wrong

        3. rely on empirical data
            a. data that were obtained using the scientific method
            b. not hearsay or personal experiences or common sense

        4. moral obligation to use our information to promote human and animal welfare

II. Where did psychology come from?
    A. Philosophy, physiology, religion
        1. an attempt to explain WHY we behave the way we do
        2. decide what causes behavior

    B. religious influences
        1. stone age practices of trephoning
            a. trephoning is placing holes in your head to let evil spirits out
            b. cause of “bad” behavior = evil spirits

        2. Early greek philosophers
            a. Behavior = result of gods fighting
            b. Zeus was mad at Aphrodite, and you got caught in the crossfire
            c. The gods caused bad behavior

        3. Early American history:
            a. Salem witch hunts
            b. Why did kill the witch? Get rid of those evil spirits

        4. today:
            a. exorcisms
            b. language” the devil made me do it”

    C. Natural causes of behavior
        1. Hippocrates (460-370 BC)
        2. questioned the belief that gods caused behavior
        3. behavior was caused by the balance of 4 humors or fluids in the body
            a. blood:
                i. too much blood: aggressive, oversexed
                ii. too little blood: weak, wimpy, can’t make decisions

            b. black bile: poop
                i. too much: constipated
                ii. too little: diarrhea
   
           
c. yellow bile: liver function
                i. too much: anxious, fearful
                ii. too little: wimpy and not alert

            d. phlegm:
                i. too much mucous: stuffed up
                ii. too little mucous (runny nose)

        2. Aristotle: father of western thought
            a. divide the soul and psyche into two
                i. mind
                ii. physical body
            b. these are ruled by different natural laws

    D. Middle Ages
        1. return to religion as cause
        2. all psychological treatments are tied up in church dogma
        3. monks working on medicine and biology as an aside to the church

    E. Renaissance
        1. philosophy breaks away from the church
        2. philosophy begins to address the causes of mental illness
        3. in particular- look for natural causes
        4. Rene DesCartes:
            a. French
            b. Reflex arc: nerve connection from extremity to the spinal cord
            c. Dualist: believes that the mind is separate from the body

        5. British associationist or empiricists
            a. You were born as a blank slate: Tabula Rasa
            b. Everything must be learned
            c. Mind = body

III. Zeitgeist in the 19th century
    A. Zeitgeist
        1. Huge change in thinking
        2. paradigm shift
        3. going from DOS to Windows platform

    B. Three important individuals
        1. Karl Marx:
            a. Father of communism
            b. First to study work environment and behavior
            c. Made interesting assumption: everyone is equal

        2. Charles Darwin
            a. Degree was in theology
            b. Upper class: limited his work potential
            c. “Origin of the species”
                i. Bodies change over time
                ii. Biological pressures that guide these changes: environment
                iii. Fitness and survival
                iv. Behavior as well as body shape and function are PURPOSEFUL

       3. Sigmund Freud
            a. Medical doctor
            b. Studied the unconscious
            c. Studied the mind
            d. Thoughts and feelings that are overt (hidden from view) may cause behavior

    C. first psychologist
        1. Wilhelm Wundt: 1878
                a. Studied human experiences
                b. Leipzig, Germany
                c. Trained as a psychological researcher

        2. then, the fight began

IV. Systems of Psychology
    A. Systems or schools of psychology
        1. philosophical camps
        2. problem: no right answer at the moment

    B. Structuralism:
        1. structure of the mind and behavior
        2. Wundt, Titchner (first American)
        3. study the mind and its parts
        4. today: neuroscientists
            a. study brain and its parts
            b. map the brain

    C. Functionalism
        1. study function
        2. study how the parts work together
        3. study WHY they work together
        4. what is the function of each part
        5. highly influenced by Darwin

    D. Behaviorsm
        1. Behaviorsts want to make observations external
        2. observable events
        3. in studying the mind, how can we use scientific method?
        4. nonverbal behavior
        5. environment influences

    E. Gestaltists
        1. Gestalt = the whole
        2. mantra: the whole is greater than the sum of its parts
        3. emphasis was studying the whole organism, not just one part

    . . . . . .             a six element line

       .          .
    .     .     .    .       
six elements but two triangles

    F. Psychoanalysis
        1. Freud, his followers
        2. deterministic: you are what you are and can’t change it
        3. instinct: Eros and Thanatos
                          life             death
        4. guided by your unconscious

    G. out of all of this emerges some controversies
        1. mind body controversy
        2. nature and nurture
        3. free will and determinism

V. Controversies
    A. Mind body
        1. dualist position: mind is separate from body
        2. monist position: mind = body

    B. nature vs nurture
        1. nature: genetics
        2. nurture: environment, including womb

    C. Free will vs determinism
        1. free will is the assumption that you are freely able to choose options
        2. determinism: pre destined due to genetics, environment, etc., to behave in a certain way

                Person has committed a crime
                Person has a history of mental illness
                Are they guilty?

VI. Ethical rules
    A. General rights
        1. right to privacy
        2. voluntary participation
        3. must give consent
        4. no unjustified deception
        5. cannot cause lasting harm
        6. debriefing: must explain in detail the reasons for the experiment

    B. animal rights
        1. why study animals: good model for humans
        2. animals at ISU?
            a. Rats
            b. Mice
            c. Hamsters
            d. Guinea pigs

        3. Institutional Animal Care and Use committee: IACUC
            a. Oversees ALL animal use including the farm
            b. ISU vet
            c. Caretaker: animal technician

        4. guidelines
            a. cannot inflict pain with out anesthesia
            b. cannot restrict food/water without cause
            c. environmental enrichment: toys and socialization if needed

    C. human ethics committee: IRB
        1. institutional review board
        2. physician on the committee
        3. ensure human protection
        4. must be 18 to give consent, under that and parents give consent
        5. kids give assent
        6. compromised population (prisoners, mentally ill): may need a legal guardian to give consent

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5/23/06 Experimental methods, the neuron and synaptic transmission

I. Experimental methods
    A. Populations and samples
        1. population makes up all possible cases (hypothetical)
        2. sample: small portion of possible cases
            a. random sample
            b. representative sample
                i. include set number of individuals from each cohort group
                ii. of each type

    B. Two kinds of research
        1. experimental research
            a. use the scientific method
            b. manipulate variables

        2. quasi experimental or non-experimental methods
            a. use the scientific method
            b. can’t randomly assign groups or adequately manipulate variables
            c. cannot show causation

II. Non experimental or quasi experimental methods
    A. naturalistic observation
        1. observe in natural habitat
        2. don’t generally manipulate the environment
        3. just watch

    B. Case study
        1. uses one or a select few subjects or participants
        2. special case- the individual or individuals are unusual or rare
        3. might manipulate variables

    C. Surveys
        1. questions answered by a sample of a population
        2. difficult to give well
        3. quick, easy and fairly nonintrusive
        4. not necessarily reliable

    D. correlation used in the above procedures
        1. establishing a relationship between 2 or more variables or things or events
        2. in many ways really just regression
        3. correlations range from -1.0 to 0 to +1.0
                a. zero correlation means the variables are unrelated
                b. -1.0 means as one goes up the other goes down
                c. +1.0 means as one goes up the other goes up

        4. does NOT mean the one event caused another

III. Experimental methods
    A. show causation
        1. use the scientific method
        2. manipulate variables
        3. use random assignment and control groups

    B. Two kinds of variables
        1. independent variable: IV
            a. what the experimenter manipulates or changes
            b. changed variable

        2. dependent variable: DV
            a. what the experimenter measures
            b. measured variable
            c. result of the IV

        3. effects of caffeine on test performance in early morning classes:
            a. manipulated the number of cups of coffee: IV
            b. measure: test scores are the DV

    C. different treatment levels
        1. control group: gets nothing- serve as a baseline
        2. several levels of IV
        3. placebo effect: placebo group
            a. special control group
            b. thinks they got the treatment, but they got nothing

    D. problems in research
        1. experimenter bias
            a. experimenters should not take their own data
            b. mechanical, or an unbiased observer
            c. might influence the research

        2. demand characteristics from participants
            a. they act like they think the researcher wants
            b. take a screw you attitude

        3. single blind or double blind procedures
            a. single blind: participant doesn’t know what is happening
            b. double blind: both the researcher and the
            c. participant are blind to the condition

        4. measurement problems: be sure you are measuring what you thought you were measuring

 Neuron slides

IV. Central Nervous System
    A. Nervous system
        1. central nervous system
            a. brain
            b. spinal cord
        2. peripheral nervous system
            a. everything outside brain/spinal cord
            b. nerves in arms, legs, etc.

    B. composed of various kinds of cells
        1. effector cells: motor neuron cells: cells that contact muscles and joints and glands
        2. affector cells: sensory cells that receive info from rest of body
        3. glial cells: glue cells
        4. neurons: nerve cells

    C. glial cells:
        1. primarily made of cholesterol
        2. form the glue and the insulation for neurons
        3. hold neurons in place
        4. insulate the axon of the neuron
        5. multiple sclerosis is an allergy to your own glial cells
        6. in peripheral nervous system glial cells form hard shells
        7. in the central nervous system glial cells form soft shell
        8. glial cells reproduce: where most brain tumors come from

    D. The neuron
        1. dendrites:
            a. hairlike projections off of the soma or cell body
            b. receive information from other neurons

        2. soma or cell body
            a. contains life functions for the neuron
            b. location where cell wall shifts

        3. axon hillock: or little hill of the axon
            a. location where action potential will begin
            b. where the axon connects to the soma

        4. axon: leg like projection off of the soma
            a. where the action potential occurs
            b. chemical is stored here
            c. very long or very short

        5. end brush or terminal buttons
            a. foot like projections off the axon
            b. these are going to communicate with dendrites
            c. don’t touch the dendrites
            d. synaptic vesicles move down to here

        6. synaptic vesicles
            a. little boats
            b. water balloons
            c. contain chemcicals called neurotransmitters

        7. synapse
            a. space between presynaptic neuron’s terminal buttons and the postsynaptic neuron’s dendrites
            b. space between two neurons

        8. myelin sheath: glial cells wrapped around the AXON
        9. space between glial cells: Nodes of Ranvier

V. synaptic transmission
    A. Resting potential
        1. potential = electrical charge of something
        2. electrical charge at rest: -70 mV
        3. why: which ions are inside or outside
        4. inside the cell:
            a. anions: A-
            b. potassium: K+
            c. overall potential is slightly negative at  -70mV

        5. outside the cell:
            a. sodium: Na+
            b. chloride: CL-
            c. NaCl: saline or salt water

    B. incoming message from another neuron (terminal buttons)
        1. message is originally chemical (neurotransmitter)
        2. chemicals have charge
        3. cell adds up the incoming message: adds up all the positive and negative ions: summation
        4. IF and ONLY IF it reaches the critical value, then the neuron will fire: action potential
        5. All or None Law: the neuron fires only if it receives sufficient stimulation
        6. neuron experiences a huge flux and ion exchange across the cell walls

    C. during an action potential
        1. caused by +100 mV change
        2. starts at axon hillock
        3. continues at each node of Ranvier
        4. ions exchange places:
            a. Na+ and Cl- go in
            b. K+ goes out
            c. Then reverts to normal

        5. axon is temporarily at about +40 to +50mV

    D. refractory period
        1. neuron reverts back to normal
        2. temporarily it overshoot and remains more negative
        3. can’t fire during refractory period

    E. synaptic transmission
        1. synaptic vesicles are pushed down into the terminal buttons by this action potential
        2. vesicles smash up against the walls of the terminal button and burst
        3. spill neurotransmitter into the synapse
        4. chemical (neurotransmitter) moves across the synapse and attaches to the dendrites on the next neuron cell
        5. receptor sites on the dendrites that are specific for each kind of neurotransmitter

    F. clean up the synapse:
        1. brain is very efficient: it recycles: reuptake
        2. enzymes in the synapse eat up the extra NT
        3. NT attaches to the next dendrite and is used up

VI. Neurotransmitters
    A. how neurotransmitters work
        1. increase the probability of an action potential: EPSP or excitatory postsynaptic potential
        2. decrease the probability of an action potential: IPSP
        3. this is not necessarily the behavioral outcome

    B. neurotransmitter
        1. be made in the axon
        2. must be contained in synaptic vesicles
        3. must be specific to a receptor site
        4. must be released during an action potential

    C. Acetylcholine; ACh
        1. made from choline, comes from legumes
        2. primarily in CNS, target organs of the autonomic nervous system (heart, lungs, etc.)
        3. important for memory
        4. too much: muscle contractions (atropine poisoning)
        5. too little: flaccid muscles: curarae

    D. norepinephrine: NE
        1. noradrenalin by biologists
        2. epinephrine in the peripheral nervous system
        3. acts in both the periphery and the CNS
        4. primarily in CNS and around the heart and lungs
        5. important for arousal, and depression
        6. if too little: slowed, have difficulty learning, depression
        7. if too much: mania, heart arrhythmias and high blood pressure

        8. Beta blockers: common heart medication: block the beta receptor on the NE neuron

    E. Dopamine: DA
        1. primarily CNS and autonomic organs (heart, lungs, etc.)
        2. DA is your motivation neurotransmitter: important for
                a. Sex
                b. Reward
                c. Eating/drinking
                d. Motivation activity
                e. Addictions

        3. too little: Parkinson’s disease or parkinson’s like symptoms
            a. 80% loss of neurons in substania nigra
            b. More dopamine as a treatment: l-dopa

        4. too much: mania and psychosis (schizophrenia symptoms)
            a. hallucinations, delusions
            b. treatment: antipsychotics: anti-dopamine drugs
                i. thorazine
                ii. stellazine
                iii. respiridol
                iv. olanzapine
            c.. side effect: parkinson’s like effects – tardive dyskinesia

    F. serotonin: 5HT
        1. precursor or stuff it is made from is tyrosine and tryptophan- these are found in cheese, dairy products and white meat
        2. serotonin is important for sleep and arousal
        3. critical for depression: controls some anxiety or anticipation circuts
        4. depression drugs:
            a. elavil (works on DA, NE and serotonin)
            b. paxil, lexapro, prozac……
            c. SSRIs: serotonin reuptake inhibitors

    G. GABA: gamma amino butyric acid
        1. mostly in the brain
        2. inhibitory
        3. reduce anticipation and anxiety directly
        4. benzodiazepines mimic the action of GABA
            a. valium
            b. Librium
            c. Antivan

    H. Endorphins and enkephalins
        1. pain receptor neurotransmitters
        2. all over the body
        3. released in the brain- but the brain doesn’t feel pain, it processes pain
        4. drugs such as opiates mimic endorphins

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5/24/06 Brain Anatomy and Audition

Brain Anatomy Slides

Audition slides

I. Division of the Nervous system
    A. CNS: central nervous system
        1. brain and spinal cord
        2. brain:
            a. best protected organ in the body
            b. hard skull
            c. first to get oxygen and nutrients
            d. not size that matters- density

        3. three “skin” layers that cover the brain: meninges
            a. dura
            b. arachnoid
            c. pia mater

        4. brain and spinal cord bathed in cerebral spinal fluid or CSF

        5. spinal cord is inside the vertebrae
            a. two sides to spinal cord
                i. afferent: sensory side
                ii. efferent: motor side

            b. many reflexive behaviors are processed here, including sexual responses

       6. the more important the function, the more space in the brain is devoted to that function

    B. The peripheral nervous system
        1. somatic nervous system
            a. voluntary action system
            b. controls primarily skeletal muscles

        2. autonomic system
            a. automatic system
            b. control visceral muscles: heart, lungs, intestines, glands, etc.
            c. basically involuntary

        3. two divisions of the autonomic
            a. sympathetic nervous system
                i. expending energy
                ii. fear, flight, fight system
                iii. speed up heart, blood pressure, send blood to the muscles
                iv. stops digestion and sexual behaviors

            b. parasympathetic nervous system
                i. save energy, conserve energy
                ii. opposite of fear, flight, fight
                iii. slow the heart, lungs, etc.
                iv. responsible for digestion and sexual behaviors
                v. sleep

II. The Brain
    A. evolution of the brain
        1. oldest to the newest part of the brain from the back and inside to outside
        2. as brain develops, it goes through this evolution process

    B. hindbrain (back underside)
        1. medulla oblongata
            a. right above the spinal cord
            b. regulate heart rate, digestion, breathing, basically most life functions
            c. nausea center: area postrema

        2. cerebellum: little brain
            a. striated or striped tissue at the back, underside of the brain
            b. integrates motor movements into fine and coordinated smooth movements
            c. allows walking, dancing, writing
            d. common site for damage from cerebral palsy

        3. reticular formation: (ascending reticular formation, etc….)
            a. controls arousal
            b. first sentry system for stimulation
            c. gating mechanism that detects change
            d. one of the problem areas for autism and attention deficit disorder

        4. pons
            a. bridge or pathway to higher areas of the brain
            b. top of the hindbrain
            c. begins to send right fibers to the right areas

    C. Midbrain
        1. in humans is very small
        2. startle response
        3. look or turn to the direction of the stimulus
        4. beginnings of processing for hearing in particular

    D. thalamus
        1. major relay center
        2. exact middle of the brain
        3. all sensory information EXCEPT smell is processed through here

    E. Hypothalamus:
        1. located ventral or under the thalamus
        2. control most regulatory functions and most hormones via the pituitary gland
        3. responsible for the 4F’s
            a. feeding behavior
            b. fighting behavior
            c. fleeing
            d. sex

        4. control most hormones
            a. exerts both neurotransmission functions in brain
            b. acts on hormone system in the body

    F. Corpus striatum
        1. right above the thalamus and hypothalamus
        2. composed of three parts
            a. caudate nucleus
            b. putamen
            c. globus pallidus

        3. coordinate motor movements
        4. begin the motivation system
        5. substantia nigra is very near and connected as well
        6. involved in Parkinson’s disorder

    G. Limbic System
        1. wrap around the thalamus and hypothalamus and between the corpus striatum
        2. control emotions
        3. amygdala: control center for emotions or decision center
        4. hippocampus: memory center for emotions
        5. connect to both hypothalamus and thinking parts of the brain
        6. where frontal lobotomies were performed
            a. disconnect the forebrain from the limbic system
            b. partially severe the limbic system from lower functions

III. Cerebrum or Cerebral cortex
    A. two hemispheres
        1. left hemisphere that controls the right side of the body
        2. right hemisphere controls the left side of the body
        3. centralization of function
            a. language is left hemisphere
            b. spatial is right hemisphere

        B. 4 lobes on each hemisphere
            1. occipital lobe
            2. parietal lobe
            3. frontal lobe
            4. temporal lobe

    C. highly convoluted
        1. lots of ridges and valleys
        2. valleys= sulci
        3. ridges= gyri
        4. allows more tissue in less space

    D. Parietal lobe
        1. top of the brain towards the back
        2. sensory cortex
        3. somatosensory integration area: coordination of body parts
        4. sensory neglect with damage to this area
            a. neglect parts or areas of your body or sensory function
            b. stroke: might neglect the damaged side of the body

    E. Occipital lobe
        1. vision center
        2. back of your brain
        3. vision center is highly specialized
            a. two different pathways from eyes
                i. object pathway
                ii. location pathway
            b. really only need location pathway to react to visual stimuli
            c. cortical blindness is brain damage that causes the blindness

     F. Temporal lobe
        1. hearing or audition
        2. left hemisphere: Wernickes area
            a. allows processing of language
            b. understanding of language, not production
            c. using or understanding the right words
        3. cortical deafness here: deaf because of the brain damage, not ear damage

     G. Frontal lobe
        1. two main functions
            a. motor function
            b. thinking
        2. prefrontal area: decision or rational center- planning and foresight
        3. Broca’s area: speech production
            a. Stuttering and speech disorders may occur with damage here
            b. Can’t make the right sounds/words
            c. Left hemisphere only

IV. Anatomy of the Ear
    A. audition = hearing
        1. hearing= processing pressure changes
        2. many kinds of pressure changes
            a. weather
            b. altitude changes
            c. colds, flus, allergies
            d. sound

        3. loudness = intensity of the sound = decibels
            a. psychological measure that correlates with physical measure
            b. measure a sensation
            c. most people can hear at 5 to 10 dB
            d. painful sound starts at around 90dB

        4. pitch of a sound: frequency
            a. highness or lowess of a sound
            b. most people can hear a 20Hz sound
            c. 250 Hz you being to feel the sound as well as hear it

        5. timbre:
            a. harmonics or overtones of a sound
            b. pitch + loudness combination
            c. gives a unique voice to each instrument or human

    B. ear parts
        1. outer most part: pinna
        2. outer canal: funnel sound
        3. middle ear
        4. ear drum: tympanic membrane
        5. three bones:
            a. malleus, incus and stapes
            b. bones push and pull and move around to help push air back

        6. oval window: oval opening in the bone
        7. cochlea
            a. snail shaped indentation in the skull
            b. three chambers
                i. vestibular membrane and semi-circular canals
                ii. basilar membrane
                iii. tectal membrane

    C. cochlea processing “hearing”
        1. air pressure flows across the basilar membrane
        2. hair cells sticking up on the membrane
        3. air pushes the hair back and forth, which stimulates the hair cell, which stimulates a neuron

    D. vestibular membrane and semicircular canals
        1. process gravity, pressure and movement
        2. as fluid in these areas move, tells you gravity (up or down), pressure and where you are
        3. any mixed signal between eyes and ears is processed as a “poison” signal- nauseous

    E. two ways we hear
        1. hair cells can move in two ways
            a. move or not move
            b. move fast or move slow

        2. location model
            a. only certain hair cells are stimulated by certain frequencies and decibles
            b. high frequencies: 400-20000 HZ individual hair cells move

        3. at low sounds: hair cells move at different speeds
            a. most hair cells move, but at different speeds of waving
            b. 20-200 hz
            c. Frequency model

        4. most of the time: both happen
            a  volley principle
            b. location changes with the sound
            c. and the frequency of waving changes

V. hearing loss
    A. three kinds
        1. conductive loss
            a. the parts of the ear in middle or outer ear don’t work
            b. sound isn’t conducted back to the cochlea

        2. sensorineural loss
            a. cochlea is damaged
            b. auditory nerve is damaged

        3. mixed loss
            a. both conductive
            b. and sensorineural

    B. conductive loss
        1. middle or outer ear is damaged
        2. reduction in overall sound
        3. causes
            a. too much wax in your ears
            b. punctured ear drum
            c. calsification of three bones
            d. foreign objects
            e. malformations
            f. ear infections

        4. treatment is augmentation of the sound: hearing aid

    C. sensorineural loss
        1. damage to the cochlea or nerve
        2. cannot be “fixed”
        3. loss specific to certain sounds, not necessarily ALL sounds
        4. treatment: specially augment the sound

    D. hearing loss
        1. normal: 0 to 10 dB
        2. mild: 20-40 dB
        3. moderate 40-60
        4. severe 60-80 dB
        5. profound loss: only hear 80dB or louder

    E. augment your hearing
        1. hearing aids
            a. analog: makes everything louder
            b. digital aids: only make the programmed frequencies louder

        2. cochlea implant
            a. nerve and sensorineural loss
            b. implant on the cochlea itself
            c. microprocessor to stimulate the nerve and bypass the cochlea

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5/26/06 Vision and Perception

I.                          Nature of Light

A.        light = electromagnetic radiation

1.                       composed of photons

2.                       travels in waves

3.                       various wavelengths = psychological concept of color

4.                       all light mixed together = WHITE light

5.                       a single wavelength of light = single color

6.                       intensity of the light = brightness of color

 

B.        we see in the visual spectrum of electromagnetic radiation

1.                       not everyone sees the same wavelengths

2.                       other animals see a slightly different range

 

C.        eye must convert electromagnetic radiation into nerve impulses that are organized and make sense

1.                       light goes through the eye onto the retina

2.                       focus on the fovea

3.                       cause a chemical reaction

4.                       chemical reaction produces action potentials in the nerve cells

 

II.                     The Eye

A.        Parts

1.                       cornea

a.                        outer most part

b.                       tough, transparent

c.deeply curved- bend the light to focus on the fovea

d.                       astigmatism is waffle-iron cornea

 

2.                       aqueous humor: watery fluid

a.                        pouch of liquid between the cornea and lens

b.                       helps with irrigation and with pressure

 

3.                       Iris and pupil

a.                        Iris is the colored part of eye

b.                       Striated muscle: sphincter muscle

c.Regulates the amount of light getting into the eye

d.                       Pupil: hole

 

4.                       Lens

a.                        Transparent and it is very tough

b.                       Feels like a piece of fingernail

c.Change shape to focus light onto the fovea

                                                                                                                                 i.      Far away: flattens

                                                                                                                             ii.      Near: rounds

                                                                                                                        iii.      Ciliary muscles that push and pull the lens

 

d.                       cataracts are cloudy or dying lens

                                                                                                                                 i.      the fix- get new one

                                                                                                                             ii.      plastic ones!

 

5.                       vitreous humor: 

a.                        large eye cavity

b.                       fluid filled

c.irrigation and disposal system

d.                       helps the eyeball keep its shape

 

6.                       Retina

a.                        Layer of skin on the back of the eye

b.                       Contains actual light receptors

                                                                                                                                 i.      Rods: black and white vision

                                                                                                                             ii.      Cones: color vision

 

c.rods:

                                                                                                                                 i.      rod shaped

                                                                                                                             ii.      many rods to 1 ganglion (nerve) cell connection

 

d.                       cones:

                                                                                                                                 i.      cone shaped

                                                                                                                             ii.      one cone to one ganglion connection

                                                                                                                        iii.      concentrated in the fovea

 

e.fovea: indentation in the retina where all the cones are

 

f.  optic disk or blind spot

                                                                                                                                 i.      this is where the optic nerve exits the eye

                                                                                                                             ii.      no receptors there

 

B.        The pathway to the brain

1.                       light stimulates the retina

2.                       on the retina rods and cones are stimulated

3.                       these stimulate bipolar cells and then ganglion cells

4.                       optic nerve

5.                       optic nerve goes to lateral geniculate nuclei LGN (midbrain)

6.                       from the LGN goes to the visual or occipital lobe

a.                        ambient vision: spatial vision

                                                                                                                                 i.      tells us that something is there

                                                                                                                             ii.      tells us  movement

 

b.                       focal vision

                                                                                                                                 i.      object vision

                                                                                                                             ii.      tells us what the object is

 

C.        Vision problems

1.                       at the eye:

a.                        nearsightedness:

                                                                                                                                 i.      you can only see clearly at near distances

                                                                                                                             ii.      lens is too curved

                                                                                                                        iii.      eyeball is too long

                                                                                                                         iv.      light is focusing ahead of the retina not on the fovea

                                                                                                                              v.      concave lens

 

b.                       farsightedness

                                                                                                                                 i.      only see clearly at far distances

                                                                                                                             ii.      lens is too flat

                                                                                                                        iii.      eyeball is too short

                                                                                                                         iv.      light is focusing behind the retina

                                                                                                                              v.      convex lens (magnifies)

 

2.                       amblyopia

a.                        middle age

b.                       both farsighted and nearsighted

c.lens is wearing out and it just doesn’t adapt or move

 

3.                       crossed eyed: strabismus

a.                        uneven focus because of uneven muscle development

b.                       one side of the eye has a weak muscle or one side has an overly strong muscle

c.like riding a tricycle with one leg stronger than the other

d.                       solution is to patch the good eye and exercise the weak eye

 

III.               vision processing

A.        rods and cones (photoreceptors) turn light into a neural impulse

1.                       rods: rhodopsin

2.                       cones: various kinds of iopsins

3.                       chemicals in the rod or cone get used up with light exposure

4.                       stimulates a nerve response

 

B.        Trichromatic theory

1.                       Thomas Young (1880’s), von Hemmholtz (1950’s) found direct evidence

2.                       only need three kinds of cones to make all color combinations

a.                        short wavelength: blue

b.                       medium: green

c.long: red

 

3.                       if true, there should be 3 kinds of cones in the eye- and there are!

 

C.        Opponent Process model of color vision

1.                       Ewald Hering (about 1850) and then Hurvich and Jameson (1957)

2.                       in the brain: process 4 colors and black/white

a.                        red-green

b.                       blue-yellow

c.white-black

 

3.                       opponent systems

a.                        cell reads: red  or   green

b.                       complimentary colors

 

D.       color blindness:

1.                       generally it occurs in males (recessive trait that is carried on the X chromosome)

2.                       red-green is most common

3.                       blue-yellow is very rare

4.                       complete color blindness is usually an EYE problem in preemies

 

IV.              Gestalt rules for perception

A.        sensation and perception

1.                       difficult distinction

2.                       sensation is processing raw information

3.                       perception is making sense of it

 

B.        Gestaltists

1.                       German psychologists in early 20th century

2.                       phenomenologists: studied essence of human experience of phenonemon

3.                       looked at similarities and differences in how people perceived visual stimuli

4.                       rules for how we perceive: 21st century, we can now document the rules are hardwired

 

C.        Gestalt rules

1.                       gestalt = configuration

2.                       emphasize figure vs. ground

a.                        we distinguish between the “figure” and the irrelevant background when we look at things

b.                       how do humans tell what is figure and what is ground

 

D.       rules of organization

1.                       proximity: things that are near one another belong together

2.                       similarlity: things are like one another belong together

3.                       contrast: edges or lines that distinguish between our groups

4.                       good continuation: patterns should continue in a predictable way until a logical conclusion

5.                       closure: we close things that aren’t closed

6.                       good figure or pregnanz: we like symmetrical figures, not nonsense figures

7.                       if you can’t make a figure fit a rule, you adapt the figure to fit the rule: common fate

 

E.         the rules are used in context

1.                       the whole is greater than the sum of its parts

2.                       look at the “whole figure’ in its context- what is the best fit for the situation?

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3.                       we see a figure RELATIVE to the other figures around it

 

4.                       perceived movement: movement is an illusion- changing stimuli

 

5.                       dynamic qualities: different senses work together

a.                        sound-visual connection

b.                       assume something that has a deep voice is a large guy

c.names

 

V.                   perceiving depth

A.        translation of 2-dimension retinal image into a 3-d perception

1.                       we live in a three dimensional world

a.                        height

b.                       width

c.depth

2.                       much of what we work with is really 2-D

3.                       use 2 kinds of cues to perceive or make depth

a.                        monocular cues: 1-eyed cues

b.                       binocular cues: 2-eyed cues

 

B.        monocular cues:

1.                       accommodation:

a.                        eye muscle movement

b.                       change in ciliary muscles around the lens

c.crude cue- not very exact

 

2.                       pictorial or picture cues

a.                        size:

                                                                                                                                 i.      objects stay the same size

                                                                                                                             ii.      as the object moves farther away it LOOKS smaller

 

b.                       interposition:

                                                                                                                                 i.      one object will occlude another object if it is in

front of that object

                                                                                                                             ii.      a clue or cue that the object is behind

 

c.lighting and shadowing

                                                                                                                                 i.      an object must block light in order to cast a shadow

                                                                                                                             ii.      to block light- have to have depth

 

d.                       perspective:

                                                                                                                                 i.      lines converge as they get farther away (railroad tracks)

                                                                                                                             ii.      patterns converge as they get farther away: texture gradient

 

e.aerial perspective:

                                                                                                                                 i.      higher objects are blurrier than lower objects

                                                                                                                             ii.      atmosphere

 

3.                       kinetic cues:

a.                        motion parallax

b.                       one object’s movement relative to another

c.marching band turning a corner: outside guy goes fast; inside guy marches in place

 

C.        Binocular cues

1.                       two eyed cues

2.                       convergence as  a cue: muscle feedback from eyes turning in to a near object or turning out for a far object

 

3.                       binocular or retinal disparity:

a. each eye sees a slightly different image

b. amount of overlap between the    two images tells distance

        i. lots of overlap = near

ii. not much overlap = far

 

4.                       you have a dominant eye: the eye the brain likes best

a.                        use this dominant eye the most

b.                       the other eye supplies the “disparity”

c.if abnormal amount of disparity- the brain only processes information from the dominant eye

d.                       nerve pathway from non dominant eye can actually die off

 

5.                       use a sensory organ or lose it

a.                        critical period is about 3-4 years of age

b.                       out of luck after puberty

 

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5/30/01 Test 1

5/31/06 Learning

habituation/classical conditioning overheads

operant overheads

biological boundaries overheads

I. Learning
    A. definition
        1. relatively permanent change in behavior NOT due to maturation but to experience
        2. learning as a continuum
            a. distinction as to “kinds” of learning are artificial, just for study purposes
            b. most learning experiences involve mixed kinds of learning

    B. continuum
        1. habituation
        2. classical conditioning
        3. instrumental or operant conditioning
        4. higher cognitive functions like concept formation and problem solving

II. Types of learning
    A. habituation
        1. is learning not to respond to a previously meaningful stimulus
        2. the stimulus has become irrelevant
        3. dishabituation: now respond to a changed stimulus
        4. allows for efficiency in learning- you can ignore much of the world

    B. Classical conditioning
        1. based off of the reflex arc: spinal reflex that is processed in spinal cord
        2. some stimulus predicts some event
        3. Ivan Pavlov; Russian Physiologist
            a. 1901: won the Nobel prize for his work in digestion- saliva
            b. Worked with dogs
            c. His work did not make it to the US until 1927

    C. basic set up for classical conditioning
        1. four parts
            a. unconditioned stimulus: US: thing that automatically elicits the unconditioned response

            b. unconditioned response: UR: the unlearned or automatic response

            c. conditioned stimulus: CS: the stimulus that predicts the US

            d. conditioned response: CR: the learned response that occurs to the CS

            e. most important factor: THE CS MUST PREDICT THE US

        2. several characteristics of a classically conditioned response
            a. learning curve: curve is asymptotic: reaches a max or asymptote
            b. extinction:
                i. the animal stops responding to the CS because it no longer predicts the US
                ii. the CR goes away

            c. spontaneous recovery: in a highly charged situation, the CR reappears
            d. relearning is faster
            e. generalization: you will react to similar stimuli that look like the CS
            f. discrimination: you can learn to show the CR to only particular CS’s

        3. special characteristic: CR does not necessarily mimic the UR
            a. often it is a form of the UR
                i. the slobber for Pavlov
                ii. CS slobber does not contain as many digestive enzymes

            b. sometimes the CR is OPPOSITE of the UR
                i. usually in drug reactions
                ii. opiates:
                    1. reduction in BP, heart rate and you feel cold, reduction in pain
                    2. increase in BP, heart rate and feel warm as a CR

                iii. homeostasis: keeping body in balance

        4. how we present the CS makes a difference
            a. simultaneously: at the same time as the US
            b. delay between the CS and US
            c. US come first, then the CS (usually doesn’t work)

    D. applications
        1. learning and unlearn emotional responses
            a. first example: Little Albert study
                i. John Watson
                ii. Albert was a young child (20 mos)
                iii. Show that an emotional response could be conditioned- fear

            b. fears are learned
            c. fears can be unlearned: systematic desensitization
            d. learn other emotional responses

    E. one trial learning in classical conditioning
        1. taste aversion
        2. you learn that a taste predicts illness
        3. treat eating and drinking disorders (with moderate success)

III. operant or instrumental conditioning
    A. The law of effect
        1. Thorndike (1911): The Law of effect
            a. Puzzle box: cats
            b. When a response is followed by a satisfying state of affairs, that response increases

        2. B.F. Skinner: 1938: Behavior of Organisms
            a. Define ‘satisfying state of affairs’
            b. Define “increases”
            c. Reinforcement:
                i. Strengths the connection between the response and the reward
                ii. Probability of the response
                iii. CC: CS-US strengthening
                iv. OC: R-Sr strengthening

        3. in operant conditioning: response is followed by a consequence or contingency
            a. the animal MUST make the response to get the consequence
            b. in CC: no response is required

    B. four contingencies for consequences
        1. positive Reinforcement: adding a stimulus to increase the probability of responding
        2. negative Reinforcement: taking away a stimulus to INCREASE the probability of responding
        3. positive punishment: adding a stimulus to DECREASE the probability of a response
        4. negative punishment: taking away a stimulus to decrease the probability of a response

    C. Parameters or characteristics of operantly conditioned behavior
        1. basic learning curve: asymptotic
        2. extinction:
            a. take away the consequence and the response should stop (reinforcement) or increase (punishment)

            b. two things happen with extinction for reward
                i. transient increase in response
                ii. extinction induced aggression

        3. generalization and discrimination
            a. we can perform the response in similar situations
            b. learn to perform a behavior in select settings

    D. schedules of reinforcement
        1. continuous reinforcement: CRF
            a. every response is rewarded
            b. satiation: too much reward
        2. rewarding some responses: partial reinforcement or PRF
            a. behaviors last longer
            b. more resistant to extinction (less likely to extinquish)

        3. fixed ratio schedule:
            a. the reinforcer is given after each Nth response
            b. FR5: the 5th response, 10th, etc. is reinforced
            c. Piecework
            d. Break and run pattern

        4. fixed interval schedule
            a. the reinforcer is given for the first response after X amount of time
            b. FI60 sec schedule
            c. Pay checks are often on an FI schedule
            d. Fixed interval scallop

        5. variable ratio schedule: an average of Nth responses to get a reward
            a. slot machines
            b. VR5: on average, 5 responses gets you a reward

        6. Variable interval schedule: give a reward after an average amount of time
            a. Pop quizzes
            b. On average, we have a test every 4 days, but it could come anytime

        7. shaping responses is training a response
            a. break the response up into its pieces
            b. successive approximations: approximations or building blocks of the response
            c. reward them as they build

        8. superstitious response: you believe that a response makes the reinforcer come (but there is really no contingency)

IV. Biological boundaries
    A. 1950’s behaviorism believed in Law of Equipotentiality (ITS WRONG)
        1. any CS can be paired with any US
        2. any response can be increased with any reward
        3. biology is irrelevant to learning
        4. anything can be learned

    B. Garcia effect: Taste aversion
        1. technical name: poison based avoidance conditioning: PBAC
        2. we are hard wired to learn certain CS’s with certain US’s
            a. internal events pair with other interval events
            b. external events pair with external events

    C. preparedness
        1. animals are hard wired to react to certain stimuli in certain ways
        2. fear-flight-fight response
            a. first freeze
            b. then you run
            c. then you fight

        3. certain things look like food
            a. animals are hard wired to bite or eat things that look like food
            b. food behaviors
                i. chase
                ii. search
                iii. capture (gather or catch)
                iv. ingestion

        4. instinctive drift: we drift into biological behaviors during reward situations
            a. Breland and Breland: MisBehavior of Organisms
            b. Animals “misbehave” when biology interferes with reward

    D. learned helplessness
        1. learn a contingency rule
        2. learn a rule about how the world works

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6/1/06 Modeling, Memory, forgetting and problem solving!

memory and forgetting        problem solving

I. Social learning
    A. many animals are social organisms
        1. socialization plays large role in their behavior
        2. might expect that they could learn from one another
        3. includes humans and other animals

    B. good evidence that animals learn by watching
        1. Jane Goodall- chimps
        2. dogs and cats incidentally
        3. birds

    C. Albert Bandura: Stanford University professor
        1. modeling or social learning
        2. learn through observation to a large degree
            a. don’t need direct experience
            b. rewards convey information about the state of the environment
            c. incentive motivation: motivation to get rewards
        3. vicarious reward: we are rewarded by watching others get reward

    D. certain mechanisms or processes that must occur for us to model other’s behavior
        1. attentional processes:
            a. we must pay attention to the model
            b. factors of the observer
               i. health
               ii. emotional state
               iii. gender
               iv. functional utility

            c. factors for the model
                i. age of model to the age of the observer
                ii. gender of the model in comparison to the observer
                iii. status of the model

        2. retentional processes
            a. must remember the behavior to be imitated
            b. two kinds of remembering
                i. imaginal: motor or visual memory of the task
                ii. verbal memory: words

        3. motoric reproduction
            a. must be able to physically perform the response
            b. observer limitations

        4. reinforcement
            a. do the behavior once as pure imitation
            b. repeat the behavior because you yourself were rewarded

    E. research with kids
        1. learning violence
            a. home- imitate what they are around
                i. violence must be seen as a way to solve problems
                ii. parents use it- the kids use it

            b. Bandura studies on TV
                i. Bobo doll: large inflated balloon that is weighted on bottom and you hit and it goes over and stands up
                ii. Made video
                    1. kids watch a grad student beating Bobo
                    2. Disney nature flick
                    3. gave both groups Bobo
                    4. kids who saw Bobo get hit hit Bobo more
       

        2. examined TV violence
            a. cartoon violence
            b. live action violence
            c. real life violence (news)
            d. most imitated and worst for level of violence: TV news

        3. sexual behaviors are also imitated
        4. many behaviors can be modeled including “emergency behaviors”

        5. use modeling as therapy
            a. teach social skills
            b. teach appropriate behaviors

II. Cognition
    A. cognition
        1. thinking and memory and problem solving
        2. evidence that animals do much of this
        3. difference between other animals and humans is the level of abstractness

    B. Memory
        1. has three activities
            a. register or acquire information
            b. rehearsal or practice
            c. retrieval: getting info out

        2. different KINDS of memory
            a. semantic memory or word memory
            b. episodic memory: memory for events and places- spatial or picture memory
            c. eidectic memory: photographic memory
                i. rare in adults
                ii. primarily in young kids
                iii. very inefficient

        3. two important abilities
            a. metalinguistic awareness
                i. awareness of how language works
                ii. letters/words/sentences

            b. metacognition
                i. understanding how cognition and memory work
                ii. ability to understand your memory versus others
                iii. categorize and use effective memory strategies

    C. three stages of memory
        1.  sensory register memory: SRM
            a. extremely short
            b. may even be “perception”
            c. non categorical- just there are not there
            d. lasts milliseconds

        2. Short term memory
            a. Short: about 20 seconds
            b. Capacity is only about 5-9 chunks
            c. We chunk or group information together: chunking
            d. Must keep the information active in STM or you lose it
                i. Must have uninterrupted rehearsal
                ii. Rapid decay

        3. long term memory
            a. is forever
            b. only way to lose information (wipe it out) is through a neuron injury
            c. must have rehearsal to get information into LTM
                i. maintenance rehearsal: repetition
                ii. elaborative rehearsal: make it meaningful or elaborate on the information
                iii. make mnemonic devices: memory devices

    D. forgetting
        1. two kinds of forgetting
            a. decay: physical deterioration of the memory circuit
            b. interference or inhibition of memories

        2. retroactive inhibition or interference
            a. forget because some NEW learning displaces OLD learning
            b. new car you learn where the wipers are……get in the old car and can’t remember where to turn on the wipers

        3. proactive inhibition or interference:
            a. forget because OLD learning displaces NEW learning
            b. old car locations come back rather than the new car locations

        4. several factors to determine how you forget
            a. degree of learning of the material: which ever one is learned best will be expressed
            b. degree of interference between the two information sets
            c. similarity between the two tasks
            d. meaningfulness of the information
            e. contextual factors:
                i. location
                ii. time of day
                iii. physical state
                iv. state dependent learning

III. constructive memory activities
    A. schemas
        1. we put memories together into organized and meaningful units
        2. concept: smallest meaningful units
            a. prototype
            b. model

        3. availability heuristic: rule for commonness of an object or concept
            a. dog is a common animal for a pet
            b. hedgehog: uncommon pet

        4. representative heuristics: rules that tell us what is a likely example of the concept

    B. schemas are important for decisions making and memory
        1. we construct our memories based on
            a. concepts
            b. availability heuristics
            c. representative heuristics

        2. when retelling a story that we have heard we:
            a. make the story fit our life
            b. change features to make them congruent with our concepts
            c. leave out unimportant ideas or objects or events
            d. fill in missing gaps with available or common concepts

    C. research on schemas suggest that existing schemas can influence memory
        1. surprised a group of students
            a. criminology class in Berlin in the early 1900’s
                i. had prof lecturing
                ii. someone ran in and shot the prof (fake)
                iii. student ID the shooter
                iv. poor at IDing the shooter and had poor recall of actual events

            b. 1979: Buckhourt replicated this
                i. Same set up
                ii. Neither the prof nor the students knew the “shooter”
                iii. “shooter” in police lineup immediately after the faked shooting
                iv. 40% of 141 students correctly ID’s the shooter

        2. Elizabeth Loftus: Eye witness testimony
            a. Researches testimony
            b. Set ups:
                i. Car crash set up
                ii. Student jury set up

            c. her data suggest juries can be heavily influenced
                i. prior statements
                ii. Irrelevant statements

            d. witnesses change their stories with increasing interviews

IV. problem solving
    A. definition of a problem
        1. problem has
            a. a set of givens: rules
            b. materials to use
            c. goal set
            d. 7+3=___

    2. two basic kinds of problems
        a. well defined problems
            i. well defined set of rules
            ii. Clear materials
            iii. Obvious goal set with usually only 1 answer

        b. ill defined problems
            i. general set of rules
            ii. no specific materials
            iii. ambiguous goal set

    B. theories or models for how people solve problems
        1. trial and error
            a. keep trying until you solve the problem
            b. no organized method or rule use
            c. very inefficient

        2. hypothesis testing
            a. form a guess about the solution
            b. try and solve it
            c. keep trying with a new guess until you are successful
            d. more organization to their tries

        3. analogies and heuristics to solve problems
            a. make new problem like an old problem
            b. sometimes use algorithms:
                i. algorithm is a rule that always gives the right answer
                ii. rare

            c. heuristics: general strategies

        4. insight or Gestalt
            a. suspense or excited
            b. confusion
            c. ignore the problem
            d. solution appears with no work

    C. how you work on a problem makes a difference
        1. backward workers are less experienced and inefficient
        2. forward workers are highly experienced, good solvers and very efficient

    D. problems with problems
        1. sometimes we know a solution strategy so well we can’t use an alternative strategy
        2. functional fixedness:
            a. get stuck in the function of an object
            b. can’t use the object in new ways

        3. problem set
            a. you get stuck in a solution routine
            b. can’t shift strategies
            c. math problems- you forget to switch formulas

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6/5/06 Prenatal and Early childhood Development

I. Prenatal development
    A. gestation (pregnancy)
        1. typical human gestation: 280 days or 40 weeks
        2. range of normal pregnancy is 38-42 weeks
        3. three distinct periods of pregnancy
            a. period of the ovum
            b. period of the embryo
            c. period of the fetus

    B. period of the ovum
        1. conception
        2. 1 sperm fertilizes one egg (typically)
        3. fertilization occurs in the fallopian tubes
        4. first task for ovum is to travel down the tube and attach to the uterus- 4 to 5 days
        5. cell division begins: first few days nondifferentiated

    C. period of the embryo
        1. from implantation to about 8 weeks gestation
        2. most critical time period for development
        3. rapid growth: 2 million %
        4. beginning of all body parts
            a. neural tube develops in to the brain
            b. heart, lungs, circulatory system develop
            c. mouth, eyes, ears, fingers, toes, legs, etc……

    D. period of the fetus
        1. 8 weeks to birth
        2. all parts in place- but not fully developed
        3. task for this period is to finalize development
        4. put on weight
        5. point of viability: 20 weeks gestation

II. When things go wrong
    A. basically two problems
        1. genetic problem
        2. environmental problem (in utero)

    B. Genetic problems
        1. two basic kinds of defects
            a. improper cell division
            b. genetic defects
                i. single gene defects
                ii. dominant or recessive traits

        2. Down syndrome
            a. Improper cell division
            b. Many kinds of downs
                i. Mosaicism
                ii. Trisomy 21
                iii. Many, many others

            c. occurs in 1/600 births
                i. age of mother plays a role
                ii. increases risk after age 35
                iii. by age 44: 1/65 live births
                iv. more kids you’ve had PLUS older age = better chance of downs

            d. number of characteristics
                i. flat profile
                ii. simian crease
                iii. opposable big toe
                iv. wide set eyes and flat bridge of nose
                v. related heart and brain defects and leukemia
                vi. may or may not be mental retardation

        3. fragile X syndrome: most common form of retardation
            a. weak X chromosome
            b. affects boys more than girls
            c. weak muscle tone
            d. odd stance
            e. long hung ears

        4. others
            a. hemophilia: bleeding disorder
            b. phenylketonuria: PKU
            c. tay sachs: recessive trait disorder: takes BOTH mom and dad to pass the gene on to the kid
            d. cystic fibrosis: recessive trait disorder- lack of digestive enzymes
            e. Huntington’s chorea or Woody Guthrie Disease- dominant trait disorder
                i. Age of onset is 35-40 years old
                ii. Develop mental disorder
                iii. Then develop muscle disorder
                iv. After about 10 years you suffocate in your own saliva

    C. external influences
        1. teratogens: latin for “monster makers”
            a. any agent which significantly raises the incidence of a birth defect
            b. most likely time to act: embryo

        2. Drugs
            a. Thalidomide: anti miscarriage drug originally
                i. Caused limb translocation
                ii. Limb nonformation

            b. DES or diethystilbesterol
                i. Artificial hormone
                ii. Anti nausea/anti miscarriage drug
                iii. Vaginal and testicular cancer in the babies when reach adolescence

            c. narcotic: slows the baby down and baby becomes addicted
                i. low birth weight
                ii. addiction
                iii. early growth problems

            d. alcohol: fetal alcohol syndrome
                i. look like down kid
                ii. brain is damaged from effects of alcohol
                iii. mental retardation
                iv. impulsive and violent

        3. maternal health
            a. number of diseases that can affect the baby
                i. rubella (german measles)
                ii. mumps
                iii. syphilis
                iv. herpes simplex
                v. AIDS/HIV- birth

            b. age of mom
                i. too young is bad
                ii. too old is bad: over 45 is risky

            c. general health
                i. sufficient body fat
                ii. not too much
                iii. good nutrition:
                iv. folic acid prevents spinal defects
                v. emotional state

            d. birthing factors
                i. toxemia: blood is poisoned
                ii. bleeding during pregnancy
                iii. placenta abruptia
                iv. prolonged labor
                v. breech birth
                vi. anoxia: lack of oxygen

III. childbirth
    A. baby decides when he/she will be born
        1. baby releases hormone into mom’s bloodstream
        2. mom, in reaction, releases pitocin or oxytocin
        3. starts contractions

    B. several stages of labor
        1. early labor:
            a. start to efface
            b. start to dilate
            c. 0 to 3 cm
            d. Little pain
            e. Regular and rhythmic- probably 10-15 minutes apart if not more

        2. labor:
            a. completely efface
            b. dilate to about 7-9 cm
            c. consistent and regular contractions
            d. may be as close as 1 minute apart

        3. transition
            a. completely effaced
            b. completed dilated to 10 cm
            c. baby is under the pelvic bone, head down and ready to come out
            d. continuous and hard contractions
            e. real pain

        4. birth: delivery
            a. baby comes out head first, head should be down
            b. shoulders next
            c. slither out
            d. must also deliver the placenta

IV. Infant development
    A. at birth: first test
        1. Apgar test
            a. 1 min
            b. 5 min
            c. 10 point scale
            d. Anything below 7 is an emergency

        2. second test: Brazelton test
            a. tests reflexes
            b. good neurological development
            c. in nursery within the first 6 hours after birth

    B. Newborn reflexes
        1. blink
        2. patellar reflex or knee jerk
        3. babinski reflex
            a. fans the toes when tickled underfoot
            b. adults: curl our toes
            c. lose this by about 6 months

        4. Palmar or Darwinian reflex: grasp
            a. This will be replaced with voluntary grasping
            b. Involuntary at birth

        5.moro reflex: startle
            a. elevation change or loud noises elicit this
            b. throw arms out
            c. bring arms in, tuck head
            d. scream
            e. disappears by 6 months or so

        6. Stepping or swimming reflex
            a. walking is INNATE
            b. learn balance, coordination
            c. newborns will step or swim

        7. rooting or sucking reflex
            a. babies turn to any stimulation across their cheek
            b. latch on
            c. suck

    C. first year
        1. development occurs cephalocaudal
            a. head to toe
            b. gross motor before fine motor
            c. triple your birth weight by age 1

        2. huge developmental differences in kids
            a. depends on actual gestational age at birth
            b. depends on environmental experiences
            c. individual differences

    D. basic progression
        1. birth: fetal position
        2. 1 month: chin up
        3. 2 months: chest up
        4. 3 months: when held- reach and swat
        5. 4 months: sit with support
        6. 5 months: sit in lap and grab and object
        7. 6 months: sit in a high chair
        8. 7 months: sit alone
        9. 8 months: stand with help
        10. 9 months: stand holding furniture
        11. 10 months: creep then crawl
        12. 11 months: walk when led
        13. 12 months: pull up on furniture and cruise the furniture
        14. 13 months: go UP stairs
        15. 14 months: stand alone
        16. 15 months: walk alone

    C. Preschoolers
        1. ages 2 to about 5
        2. gain 4-5 pounds/year and 3 inches/year
        3. by age 6: 43” tall and weighs 45 pounds

        4. begin to lose the pot belly look and slenderize

        5. motor skills really develop during this time period
            a. gross (big) motor before fine motor
            b. run
            c. 4 years can skip: alternating feet
            d. ride a trike or bike
            e. toileting: girls before boys
            f. catch a ball: trap at first
            g. write your name and make geometric figures

    E. growth continues until adolescence
        1. girls reach adolescence at about age 11
            a. breast development
            b. onset of menses

        2. boys reach adolescence at about age 13
            a. widening of shoulders
            b. deepening of voice
            c. elongation and development of testes/penis

V. Cognitive development
    A. Piaget:
        1. stage theorist
            a. all children went through the same stages
            b. and at the same time
            c. wrong (most kids do)

        2. cognition is an ACTIVE process
            a. act of knowing
            b. kids learning and thinking is acting, moving, doing
            c. think, imagine, create and problem solve

        3. task: organize and adapt to your changing world
        4. assimilation: take something new and add it to your existing schema

        5. accommodate: the new something makes you change or make a new schema

    B. Stages of development
        1. sensorimotor development
            a. birth to about age 2
            b. integrate and build on your existing reflexes
            c. learn cause and effect
            d. object permanence:
                i. little babies: out of sight, out of mind
                ii. by age 2: they know that objects just don’t disappear

        2. preoperational period or stage
            a. preschool years: age 2 to about 6
            b. transition in thinking
                i. very concrete
                ii. egocentric: they are the center of the universe
                iii. believe all objects have thoughts and feelings

        3. develop mental representation
            a. count
            b. develop 1:1 correspondence
            c. develop the ability to sequence- but they must see it and feel it
            d. no reversibility of set
            e. no conservation of set

        4. three important behaviors
            a. deferred imitation
            b. symbolic play
            c. learn language

    C. concrete operations
        1. grade school: age 6 to about 11 or 12
        2. less egocentric- develop empathy
        3. develop reversibility and conservation of set
        4. concrete: can’t deal with hypothetical or abstract
        5. rule bound

    D. Formal operations
        1. age 11 or 12 to adulthood
         2. Elkind: conquest of thought
         3. inductive and deductive reasoning
         4. abstract logic
         5. true problem solving
         6. only about 70-80% of adults make it to this stage

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6/6/06  Social development, language and intelligence

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT SLIDES

I. Social Development
    A. parent-infant interactions
        1. at birth (even before birth for many parents)
        2. newborns control the interactions
            a. start and stop them
            b. look at parent to start
            c. look away or sneeze or cry to end an interaction

        3. babies smile from birth/2 weeks: NON social smile
        4. 6 wks: first social smile

    B. Cry is the first form of vocal communication
        1. Eric Erikson: trust vs. mistrust
        2. young babies who are picked up and held are the least likely to cry and show distress
        3. several types of cries
            a. hurt or pain cry: recognized by all
            b. discomfort cry: slow beginning and winds up
            c. bored or fussy cry

    C. two important developmental FEARS that are critical to social development
        1. stranger anxiety: afraid of “strangers”
        2. separation anxiety: afraid of being away from parents
            a. hierarchy or rank order
            b. mom, dad, other caretakers

        3. time sequence to the development of these two fears
            a. both start at about 6 months
            b. get worse at 12 mos
            c. get worse again at about 24 mos

    D. developmental sequence to attachment: Mary Ainsworth
        1. attachment: enduring bond that develops between a caretaker and an infant- love
        2. three phases of attachment
            a. preattachment phase:
                i. birth to about 3 months
                ii. baby needs caretaker
                iii. doesn’t care who it is

            b. initial attachment phase
                i. 3 mos to 6 mos
                ii. Discriminate familiar people versus unfamiliar people
                iii. No distress- but puzzlement

            c. strong attachment
                i. strong preference for parent
                ii. emotional bond
                iii. push away from stranger, cry and arms out to parent

    E. different kinds of kids
        1. strange situation test
        2. three kinds of kids
            a. securely or firmly attached-
                i. parents are their base
                ii. show the 2 fears
                iii. 90% of kids

            b. anxiously attached
                i. parents are still secure base
                ii. both kid and parents are nervous
                iii. not calmed completely in strange situation
                iv. 5-7% of kids

        c. avoidant attachment
            i. no attachment to parent or caregiver
            ii. run off by themselves when afraid
            iii. avoid human contact
            iv. depressed parents
            v. autistic kids
            vi. orphans
            vii. 3-5% of kids

II. Attachment is critical for later development
    A. lack of attachment tends to create significant developmental problems
        1. animal research
        2. human examples

    B. Harlow’s maternal deprivations studies
        1. demonstrate the importance of “parents”
        2. rhesus monkeys- separated newborns from mothers
        3. several groups
            a. no mom group
            b. wire mom only group (food)
            c. wire mom (food) + cloth mom (no food) group

        4. most monkeys in the no mom group DIED
        5. wire only monkeys showed severe psychosis and mental retardation
        6. wire + cloth monkeys:
            a. showed psychosis
            b. social retardation
                i. socialization problems
                ii. sex problems
                iii. lousy mothers

            c. when afraid, ran to the cloth mother

        7. bred these monkeys and have continued the study
            a. monkey therapy works
            b. bad mothers beget bad mothers
            c. same is true for most primates and monkeys

    C. human studies
        1. Spitz: institutionalized infants
            a. Foundling home infants
            b. Infants who remained with their mothers in prison
            c. 1950’s
            d. Prison babies thrived

        2. Bowlby: interactions
            a. One floor in an orphanage with very low mortality rate
            b. Typical mortality rate in the 1960’s – 50%
            c. Found several interesting phenomenon
                i. Nurses carried babies around
                ii. Colored crib bumpers
                iii. Put mobiles in the crib

        3. NICU: neonatal intensive care units
            a. Babies given skin to skin comfort are much less likely to die
            b. Babies who are held and rocked are less likely to die
            c. Elder program: pay older citizens to hold babies

        4. take home message
            a. touch and love are critical for development
            b. most importantly you need
                i. consistency
                ii. continuity

            c. touch and love is critical throughout the lifespan
            d. adaptation: lovie or “transitional object” can bridge the gap between parents and nothing
                i. teddy bear
                ii. some important object

III. Language
    A. language has four functions
        1. instrumental: verbal behavior leads to consequences
        2. stimulus for other behaviors
        3. means of communicating ideas with others (for humans- abstract ideas)
        4. convey meaning of symbols, especially abstract symbols

    B. critical for other behaviors
        1. thinking or cognition
        2. problem solving
        3. communication

    C. several basic units of verbal language
        1. phonemes: basic sounds of a language
            a. smallest unit of sound
            b. phonetics
            c. adult humans use about 100 phonemes
            d. English uses about 45
            e. Cultural language phoneme differences
                i. Asian languages: No “l”- substitute “r”
                ii. Rolling tongue sounds

        2. morphemes
            a. smallest unit of MEANING
            b. usually consists of at least 2 phonemes
                i. exceptions
                ii. “I”, “a”

            c. root word
            d. prefixes and suffixes

        3. syntax are the rules for putting together a language
            a. grammar
            b. word order, sentence order, etc.

    D. ways of analyzing language
        1. lexical content: what words are used when
             a. Dolch sight word list
`            b. Frequency of use

        2. syntactical content:
            a. grammar
            b. grammar changes over time

        3. semantic content
            a. what words are used how
            b. add new words
            c. change word meaning

    E. language developmental sequence
        1. early infancy
            a. birth: crying
            b. 2-3 months: cooing, blowing bubbles
            c. 6 months: nonsense babbles: dada, mama, baba

        2. by 12 months: most kids have several words (5-10)
            a. first word is usually mom or dad
            b. object or action that is important to them
            c. mother’s ear

        3. by 18-24 months
            a. language explosion
            b. lots of words
            c. telegraphic speech: 2 word combos

        4. functional language in preschool years
            a. ridden with errors
            b. overgeneralization errors
            c. over use rules for language
            d. I walk, I walked
            e. I run, I runned
            f. One dog, two dogs
            g. One mouse, two mouses

     5. by kindergarten, first grade
        a. age 5-7
        b. good language grasp
        c. 3-5 word sentences, at least
        d. Understanding of language- metalinguistic awareness

    F. how acquire language
        1. old controversy was learned vs. innate
            a. Skinner: language was completely learned
            b. Chomsky: lang. was completely innate

        2. language centers in brain
            a. developmental phases
            b. critical period for learning language: age 3
            c. must have language exposure for these areas to be developed

        3. parent-infant interactions
            a. parents extend language
            b. model language
            c. provide language exposure esp through reading

        4. animal language
            a. initial attempt: teach animals OUR language
                i. Washoe the chimp
                ii. Koko the gorilla
                iii. Computers with chimps

            b. newer strategy is to examine innate language in animals
                i. chimps and gorillas
                ii. whales and dolphins
                iii. elephants

IV. Intelligence
    A. how define?
        1. no real definition
        2. debate
            a. is intelligence one overall ability?
            b. Multiple abilities?
            c. Set across the age span?
            d. Change across the age span?

        3. IQ is intelligence quotient or simply a score on an intelligence test

    B. theories or models of intelligence
        1. Guildford: tried to structure intelligence
            a. 150 separate abilities
            b. Three major tasks
                i. Mental operations: thinking
                ii. Content
                iii. Product of content plus thinking

        2. Spearman: 2-factor intelligence
            a. G-factor: general overall intelligence
            b. S-factors: specific strengths (and weaknesses)

        3. Thurstone: identified 7 primary abilities that are necessary for most school behaviors
            a. Verbal comprehension
            b. Numerical ability
            c. Spatial relations
            d. Perceptual speed
            e. Word fluency
            f. Memory
            g. Inductive reasoning

        4. Howard Gardner: 7 global intelligences
            a. Linguistic
            b. Musical intelligence
            c. Logical mathematical
            d. Spatial
            e. Bodily kinesthetic
            f. Interpersonal intelligence
            g. Intrapersonal intellience

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6/7/06 Personality and Testing

I. Personality
    A. define personality
        1. relatively stable pattern of behavior, thought and emotion which characterizes an individual
        2. distinctive
        3. lasting or enduring
        4. mood is momentary; personality is lasting

    B. How is personality formed? Factor analysis theories
        1. statistically based
        2. cluster traits together to form groupings of personalities
        3. two approaches:
            a. idiographic: study individual over a long period of time
            b. nomothetic: study groups of people at several time points

        4. Catell: believed there were 16 main personality factors: 16PF
        5. Eysenck: narrowed these down to three
            a. Extroversion
            b. Neuroticism
            c. Psychoticism

        6. Big Five: 5 personality dimensions
            a. Extroversion-introversion scale
            b. Agreeableness or contrariness
            c. Conscientiousness
            d. Neuroticism
            e. Openness

        7. Gordon Alport: three basic traits
            a. Vary in intensity
            b. Cardinal trait: powerful and overwhelming trait that mutes all other aspects of your personality (rare)

            c. Central traits:
                i. Most people have 5-10
                ii. Basic traits you would use to describe yourself
                iii. Generalized and enduring

            d. secondary traits
                i. less stable traits
                ii. individualize people

II. Freudian theories
    A. put Freud in historical context
        1. Physician in Vienna, Austria
        2. victorian Vienna
            a. sex is taboo (cultural level)
            b. underground kinky sex is rampant
            c. no birth control and no antibiotics- sexual diseases and death in pregnancy are VERY high
            d. women develop coping responses: get “sick” and can’t have sex

        3. Religious restrictions:
            a. Freud was Jewish
            b. Could only see Jewish patients
            c. Only rich women could afford him

        4. cocaine and opiate use are widespread

    B. Basic theory of personality
        1. three structures to personality
            a. id
            b. ego
            c. superego

        2. innate- part of your soul
        3. two instincts
            a. eros: life instinct
            b. thanatos: death instinct

        4. id: contains basic source of energy and motivation
            a. libido: life (sex) energy
            b. is NOT connected to reality- it is in the unconscious
            c. are unaware of its influences
            d. completely pleasure based

        5. superego: ego ideal
            a. strives for perfection
            b. basis of conscience
            c. not connected to reality (unconscious)
            d. perfection is not achievable- unrealistic

        6. Ego is conscious
            a. You are aware of it (its you!)
            b. Rational and logical
            c. Connected to reality
            d. Mediate the id and the supergo
            e. Balances the needs of both
            f. Balance is unattainable without dealing directly with id and superego (therapy)

    C. Defense mechanisms: ways for the ego to defend against the fight of the id and superego
        1. denial: refuse to believe in reality
        2. repression: put memory for an event into your unconscious
        3. displacement: direct feelings at an acceptable person, not the person you feel about
        4. reaction formation: act the opposite of how you really feel
        5. rationalization: rationalize your reasoning
        6. projection: you assume that how you feel is how another feels
        7. intellectualization: make the problem academic or clinical
        8. sublimation: take an unacceptable impulse and make it acceptable

    D. model of child development and personality: Stage theorist
        1. oral stage: 0-2 years
            a. main goal: seek sensory stimulation and pleasure through the mouth
            b. first way to gain pleasure- sucking
            c. if your oral needs are not met- you remain fixated on oral needs and develop problems in later life
                i. sexual pleasure = oral
                ii. oral fixations such as gum chewing, pencil biting, nail biting, smoking
               
iii. men: breast fixations
                iv. sarcastic and/or gullible

        2. anal stage: 2-3 years old
            a. focus on anal pleasure-pooping and peeing
            b. toilet training- learn to control your pleasure
            c. learning to organize and develop independence
            d. if thwarted- anal fixations
                i. sexual pleasure through anus
                ii. toileting problems the rest of life
                iii. two kinds of personalities
                    1. anal retentive: overly organized and controlling
                    2. anal expulsive: slob

        3. phallic stage: ages 3-6 or 7
            a. developing sexual identify and gender roles
            b. boys:
                i. Oedipus complex
                ii. Falls in love with mom
                iii. Dad is competitor
                iv. Know competing with dad is “wrong” but really wants mom
                v. Develops castration anxiety
                vi. If no male presence or don’t resolve this Oedipus complex- gay
                vii. You will marry someone who looks and acts like MOM

            c. girls suffer from penis envy
                i. only 1 way to resolve it: give birth to a male child
                ii. if don’t: you take on male roles

            d. neofreudians: girls have an electra complex- they fall in love with father and compete with mom

        4. latency stage: age 6-7 to puberty: nothing much happens
        5. genital stage:puberty
            a. any unresolved conflicts begin to be expressed
            b. develop sexual and personal problems
            c. defense mechanisms kick in

III. neofreudians
    A. Vienna circle
        1. group of Freud’s followers
        2. broke with Freud over the sexual emphasis in his theory
        3. Anna Freud, Carl Jung, Adler

    B. Adler: inferiority and compensation
        1. believes in id/superego/ego
        2. we engage in compensation for our failings- we emphasize a strength to downplay a failing
        3. weak man becomes a weight lifter
        4. poor man becomes wealthy
        5. basic motivation = superiority
        6. emphasized birth order
            a. no research, just case studies and writings
            b. oldest: perfection seeking, overachieving and neurotic
            c. middle child: goof off- compensate for their overachieving sibling by excelling in the opposite- best at resolving social conflict
            d. youngest: remains the baby- immature, show off- act cute
            e. roles depend on age differences between kids, and emphasis in the family

    C. Carl Jung: Swiss physician who hung out with Freud
        1. important differences with Freud
            a. libido = life energy without sexual content
            b. three part personality- but changes the emphasis

        2. ego: “I”, it is the conscious experience of you
            a. persona: public self
            b. true self: real you

        3. personal unconscious
            a. all your unconscious thoughts and feelings
            b. combo of id/superego

        4. collective unconscious
            a. memory traces of all your ancestors
            b. thoughts and feelings of mankind that you psychically inherited
            c. expressed in archtypes

        5. archtypes
            a. self: real you the unclothed and naked self
            b. persona: public or cloaked self
            c. shadow or absence of light and therefore darkness-evil of humanity
            d. anima/animus: feminine and masculine aspects of personality often expressed through animalistic characteristics
            e. wise old man: wisdom and knowledge
            f. magna mater: wise old woman: mother earth or nature
            g. god: psychic reality-understanding of archtypes and completeness
            h. quaternity: ideal completeness and understanding of the world

IV. Other theorists
    A. humanistic approaches
        1. developed in the 1950’s and 1960’s
        2. focus on people’s unique capacity for choice, responsibility and personal growth
        3. goal for individual is to become self actualized: to achieve their maximum potential
        4. Carl Rogers: Rogerian theory
            a. In order to self actualize you must experience unconditional positive regard
            b. Thwarted in your development if you receive conditional positive regard
            c. No such thing as a bad person- just bad decisions or bad behavior

        5. Maslow says there is a hierarchy of needs you must go through to achieve self actualization
            a. Must meet basic needs before you can deal with higher needs
            b. Basic needs are physiological needs
            c. Higher needs are psychological needs

        6. humanists are important because
            a. they are optimistic
            b. everyone can be good

    B. behavioral theories
        1. personality is a result of your life history of reward and punishment
        2. you learn to behave and act in certain ways
        3. deterministic: you are your environment

    C. cognitive approaches
        1. personality is your thought pattern
        2. how you think about the world and yourself is your personality
        3. positive thinkers and negative or pessimistic thinkers
        4. decision rule or thought rule that controls your reactions to environment events

    D. social learning
        1. you learn your adaptations and personal strategies by watching those around you
        2. vicarious reinforcement- watching others get rewards – shapes your personality

V. Tests
    A. how good a test is
        1. reliability: does the test give the same result each time you take it
            a. test wise: each time you take the test you get better at it
            b. different forms of the test to increase reliability

        2. validity: does the test measure what it is supposed to test
            a. external validity: comparison
            b. compare our test to another common test
            c. predictive validity is the ability of a test to predict future performance
                i. iq tests- predict school performance
                ii. ACT/SAT/GRE- predict school performance

        3. ways to give the test
            a. individually or in groups
            b. projective test: open ended with no set answer
            c. objective test: you must choose from a group of answers

    B. IQ tests
        1. intelligence tests
        2. historically: used to categorize people
            a. Alfred Binet in France- categorize kids for the best classroom
            b. Stanford-Binet test: American version of his test
            c. WWI and WWII: Army
                i. Army Alpha: read
                ii. Army Beta: illiterates

    C. IQ tests
        1. Stanford binet: oldest test
            a. One score
            b. Average IQ or intelligence quotient = 100
            c. Traditional calculation:
                i. Mental age (how far you get on the test)
                ii. Divide by chronological age
                iii. MA/CA x 100
                iv. Cutoff for mental retardation = 70

        2. Weschler series of IQ tests
            a. Three of these
                i. WAIS for adults
                ii. WISC-RIII: school kids
                iii. WPPSI: preschoolers

            b. gives several scores
                i. verbal score: comprehension, information and arithmetic
                ii. performance score: object assembly and picture completion
                iii. give clues about learning disabilities

        3. nonverbal examples of IQ tests for people who don’t speak English or have disability
        4. cultural bias

    D. personality tests
        1. projective tests
            a. open ended
            b. not have research behind them- but theory
            c. Rorschach ink blot test- series of cards with inkblots
                i. Norm the test
                ii. Get typical answers
                iii. Get deviant answers

            d. Thematic apperception test or TAT- series of pictures of people

        2. objective test
            a. series of questions with set answers
            b. you choose the answer that fits you best
            c. PF16
            d. MMPI: Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory
                i. Normed on state patrol officers, college students and mental patients at the state institution in Minnesota
                ii. 550 t/f questions

        3. others:
            a. Beck depression inventory
            b. California Personality Inventory
            c. Learned helplessness inventory

        4. objective tests tend to be backed up by data

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6/12/06 Social Psychology and Stress

be sure and study the section on love and romance- it will be on the test!

stress slides!

I. Social perceptions
    A. social psychology deals with social behaviors
        1. social behavior
            a. behavior in groups
            b. psychologists study the behavior of individuals in a group

        2. types of groups
            a. homogenous group: mostly the same
            b. heterogenous: across groups or mixed group

    B. three possible explanations for an individual’s behavior
        1. chose a group by chance
        2. disposition: biological or inherited selection factor
        3. a group looks homogeneous because of the influence of the group on an individual

    C. social perceptions
        1. causes we give to another’s behavior
        2. how do we perceive the attributes or characteristics of another?
        3. social perception is the process by which we categorize or evaluate or form judgments about another person’s behavior

        4. schemas:
            a. general framework by which we categorize people
            b. personal schema and group schemas

II. Attribution theories
    A. attribution
        1. placing a cause on a behavior
        2. for an individual or a group

    B. several important factors in making an attribution
        1. primacy effect: what you experience FIRST about a group or an individual
            a. first impressions
            b. taint later impressions
            c. Asch: people read list of positive or negative traits; then they reviewed a resume

        2. Sherif: 1937
            a. Used an autokinetic effect: stare at a small light in a dark room the light appears to move
            b. Compared one subject to group of subjects (confederate)
            c. With group people agreed with the “leader” and said the light moved more

    C. two basic causes or attributes people use
        1. dispositional: its within the person (genetic, biological, etc.)
        2. situational: the environment caused it
        3. factors that explain how you use each
            a. social desirability
            b. nonnormative effects: its not typical of the group
            c. noncommoon: its not typical for THAT individual
            d. free choice

        4. examine covariance using the covariance principle:
            a. what else is going on?
            b. Distinctiveness of the behavior
            c. Consistency of the behavior
            d. Consensus of the behavior

    D. Attribution errors
        1. fundamental attribution error:
            a. your own good behaviors = dispositional
            b. your own bad behaviors = situational
            c. others good behaviors = situational
            d. others bad behaviors = dispositional

        2. false consensus bias: you assume that everyone else feels the same way you do

        3. illusion of control: we think we have far more control over outcomes than we actually do
            a. we remember the positive correlation
            b. we remember when we had a bad feeling and bad things happen
            c. we don’t remember when we had bad feelings and nothing bad happened

        4. rose-colored glasses phenomenon
            a. we remember ourselves in a more positive light
            b. we remember our adversaries and problems as much worse than they were

    E. Why?
        1. amount of information you have to make the attributions
        2. you know yourself and your complete circumstances
        3. you don’t know the complete circumstances of others
        4. actors vs. observers
            a. actors acted out a person with a problem
            b. observers watched the scene
            c. asked to judge the person portrayed in the scence
                i. actors were much more likely to attribute situational factors
                ii. actors were more likely to give “grace” to the portrayed individual
                iii. “walking around in another’s shoes”

III. Attitudes
    A. attitude is
        1. learned via direct experience or modeling
        2. relatively enduring
        3. predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way to certain people, groups, ideas, things or situations

    B. attitudes are important for several reasons
        1. efficient
        2. increase our understanding of a situation
        3. social identification
        4. means of seeking and gaining approval- social adjustment
        5. impression management: select the information you reveal about yourself and what it says about you
        6. value expression
        7. ego defensive

    C. attitudes affect behavior
        1. what you think is what you do
            a. you may act without thinking due to an attitude
            b. cause social expectations

        2. appears to be two routes to developing and changing an attitude
            a. direct or central route: people are motivated and interested- directly suggest an attitude change
            b. peripheral route: when people are unmotivated or uninterested we use sneak attack
                i. attractiveness
                ii. characteristics that have positive traits to pair with the new attitude

    D. cognitive dissonance:
        1. attitude and your behavior disagree
        2. if disagreement: one or the other MUST change your experience physical and psychological discomfort
        3. which way you change depends on which is “stronger”
            a. if attitude is dominant- behavior changes
            b. if behavior is dominant- attitude changes
            c. Stockholm syndrome: captives defend and accept their kidnappers beliefs and behaviors

IV. Social facilitation and affect the optimizing of groups
    A. Robert Zajonc: work harder and better in groups GENERALLY
        1. social facilitation when working in a positive group
            a. you know your job or task well
            b. group accepts your behavior

        2. social inhibition in groups
            a. social loafing
            b. when you don’t know your job or task very well
            c. group doesn’t accept your contribution

        3. deindividuation
            a. you feel less like a person and more like a group
            b. lose your identity
            c. American culture: personal identity is highly valued
            d. In other cultures: personal identity is less valued

    B. Bystander intervention
        1. when do we help others?
        2. altruisim:
            a. definition: helping another when there is NO apparent reward for you
            b. individual altruism vs. cultural altruism
            c. pecking order:
                i. family members first
                ii. then community members
                iii. then local area
                iv. then remote area

        3. Kitty Genovesse: murdered in 1964
            a. Murdered in full view of hundreds of people in their apartments in NYC
            b. Evidence that people stood in the window and watched the murder
            c. No one called police
            d. Answer: we thought someone else already called

        4. bystander intervention:
                a. when do people “help”
                b. replicated: smoke filled room
                    i. vary the individuals sitting in the room
                    ii. age, gender
                    iii. friends or strangers, etc.

                c. several factors that determine “helping”
                    i. you believe you are responsible
                    ii. alone
                    iii. oldest (particularly true when with kids)
                    iv. you are able bodied with disabled

    C. people aren’t rational
        1. study this by examining Game Theory
            a. people are not good at figuring out odds or statistics of things happening
            b. classic paradigm: piece of cake that is cut in two
                i. one person cuts
                ii. one person selects

        2. prisoner’s dilemma
            a. two are caught
            b. asked to confess
                i. tell and other doesn’t: you get a light sentence, other gets a harsh sentence
                ii. not tell and other tells: they get light, you get harsh
                iii. both tell: both get harsh
                iv. neither tell: both get nothing or harsh (depending on conviction)

            c. most people tell, assuming that their partner won’t

        3. we make rationalization errors
            a. Tragedy of the commons: we only examine our own behavior, not the group
                i. Littering: my litter doesn’t matter
                ii. Voting: my vote doesn’t matter

            b. Concorde Fallacy: you continue to put money into a losing proposition
            c. Compete when cooperation was better

V. Compliance and conformity
    A. Authority
        1. degree to which an individual believes the authority figure has control over their behavior
        2. Stanley Milgram: 1963
            a. Intro psych students at Yale
            b. Paid $4.50
            c. Supposed random assignment to teacher or learner condition
            d. Teachers were to shock their students for errors
            e. Board was labeled mild to ‘lethal’ (no real shocks were given the learner was a confederate)
            f. 65% killed their learner (or so they thought)

        3. reran study: used gang members from New Haven, Conn.
            a. Gang members ethnic grouping: Irish and German gangs, some Hispanic
            b. Almost none

        4. degree of perceived authority dictates the degree of compliance
        5. real world situations that may be explained by this?
            a. German behavior under Hitler in WWII
            b. Vietnam: My lai
            c. Manson killing or other mass murders with cults
            d. Distinguish between excusing and explaining
                i. Excusing takes away blame or fault
                ii. Explaining helps understand and prevent future acts

    B. characteristics of the leader can help conformity
        1. leaders who are
            a. charismatic (good speakers)
            b. emphatic
            c. understanding of human behavior

        2. two tools for getting people to comply
            a. foot in the door effect:
                i. start with a small request and work up
                ii. shape the behavior
                iii. individuals will work to maintain an ongoing behavior

            b. door in the face effect:
                i. start with ridiculous request
                ii. replace with an appropriate request
                iii. people feel badly they can’t get the big item, give in and give you the smaller item

    C. interesting examples of authority with conformity and obedience
        1. people behave the way they are expected to behave
            a. Rosenthal study
                i. Told teachers that they had either a smart kid or a dumb kid
                ii. Teachers acted towards the kid as they expected the kid to be

            b. Stanford prison study
                i. Male Stanford students
                ii. Volunteer for a week long project simulating a prison
                iii. Randomly assigned as either prisoners or guards
                iv. End the study after a weekend because of violent behavior

        2. Eye of the Storm project
            a. Blue-eyed and brown-eyed project
            b. Broke kids up by eye color- made up rules for each
            c. Long term: kids who learned about prejudice were less prejudice than kids who don’t

    D. causes of prejudice
        1. outgroups and ingroups
            a. you will defend your ingroup against an outgroup
            b. you are prejudiced against anyone not in your group

        2. create a little competition between groups for the same resources
        3. add frustration and allow scapegoating
             a. scarce resources- not enough to go around
            b. allow the ingroup to blame the outgroup for the scarcity

        4. model prejudiced behavior
        5. difference between prejudice and discrimination
            a. prejudice is a schema or a thought pattern
            b. discrimination is an act

           6. prejudiced personality:
            a. cold and rigid and rule bound
            b. intolerant
            c. unquestioning compliance to authority
            d. stereotyped thinking
            e. identify with authorities who believe what they believe

    7. how fix?
        a. Eliminate or reduce ingroup and outgroup differences

        b. decrease competition

        c. resolve frustration and reduce scapegoating

        d. identify people with strong prejudices and help them resolve

VI. Stress
    A. Behavioral medicine
        1. instead of studying sick people study well people
        2. preventive rather than treatment based

    B. Stress
        1. occurs as a result of a demand
        2. complex reaction of cognitive and physiological processes
        3. traditionally: Fear-flight-fight model
        4. eustress vs. distress
            a. eustress: positive stressors (graduation, marriage)
            b. distress: negative stressors (war, tests)
            c. body doesn’t care!

    C. Hans Selye: Swiss physician first identified stress as a disorder in 1950’s
        1. General Adaptation Syndrome or GAS
            a. Alarm stage: short (weeks at most)
            b. Resistance stage: months to years- resisting the effects of a chronic stressor
            c. Exhaustion and death

        2. evidence suggests that people develop coping mechanisms to deal with stress

    D. coping mechanisms
        1. Lazarus: cognitive components
            a. How you frame it
            b. Engage in two kinds of framing
                i. Primary appraisal: how bad is it?
                ii. Secondary appraisal: how much should I react?

        2. if it’s a stressor
            a. coping mechanism
            b. reduce the stress
            c. deal with the stress

    E. Effects of not dealing with stress
        1. Holmes and Rahe (1967) point system for identifying stress
            a. If over 100: higher chance of injury or illness
            b. Most college students are over 300

        2. Type A or Type B personality
            a. Type A: driven
                i. Competitive
                ii. agitated
                iii. can’t relax
                iv. driven

            b. Type B: relaxed personality
                i. laid back
                ii. less driven and competitive
                iii. not at as a high risk for heart disease

        3. chronic stress affects the immune system
            a. causes an initial over-reaction of the immune system
            b. over-reaction of the sympathetic nervous system
                i. increased cardio-vascular function
                ii. reduced digestive function

        4. more
            a. heart disease and related disorders
            b. more autoimmune disorders such as
                i. multiple sclerosis
                ii. lupus
                iii. fibromyalgia
                iv. schleroderma
                v. allergies and asmtha

            c. makes us more susceptible to cancers

            d. diathesis stress model
                i. genetics plus stress = disorder
                ii. predisposition with stressor turns on the disorder

    F. develop coping skills
        1. identify stressors
        2. avoid or reduce when you can
        3. if not: plan for stressors
        4. learn ways to relax
        5. eat a better diet
        6. get plenty of rest

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6/13/06 Psychopathology

I. Define abnormal behavior
    A. several ways to define abnormal behavior
        1. socio-cultural norms: what is socially appropriate or inappropriate
        2. self-help model: you feel uncomfortable about your behavior and want to change
        3. medical model: you have an illness

    B. use “schools” or systems of psychology as a guide
        1. psychoanalytic approach: problems are the result of intrapsychic conflict
        2. behavioral approach: abnormal behavior is the result of poor reinforcement history
        3. humanistic approach: pathology = failed self actualization and personal growth
        4. organic or medical approach: physical disease process
        5. cognitive approach: you have poor thought processes

    C. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, fourth edition, revised
        1. DSM-IVR
        2. published by the American Psychiatric Association
        3. divides mental illness into (5) axes:
            a. different dimensions or aspects of the disorder
            b. primary axis: actual psychological disorder
            c. secondary axis: physical problems or issues that affect psychological disorder
            d. third axis: environmental factors which impact the disorder

        4. level of functioning at the time of diagnosis

II. Anxiety disorders
    A. general anxiety
        1. generalized feeling of dread and apprehension
        2. often physical symptoms – increased heart rate, higher blood pressure, etc.
        3. 10% of the population experiences clinical levels of anxiety at any one time
        4. disorder when the anxiety stays after the anxiety provoking event

    B. panic attacks or panic disorder
        1. bizarre coping response to anxiety
        2. panic attack:
            a. anxiety attack
            b. specific places
            c. hyperventilation, feel like experiencing a heart attack

        3. begin to avoid situations that produce anxiety attacks
        4. must have at least 4 in a month- must be life interfering

    C. Agoraphobia
        1. fear of places that provoke your panic attacks
        2. literal translation is “fear of open places”
        3. as frequency of panic attacks increase, the number of locations you avoid also increase
        4. home bound or even bed bound

    D. simple phobias
        1. persistent, irrational avoidance of a specific object, place, or person
        2. most common:
            a. heights
            b. water
            c. flying
            d. bugs/snakes
        3. clinical phobia when it interferes with your life
        4. most people have 1-2 phobias

    E. social phobias
        1. fear of social situation
        2. public speaking
        3. bathroom phobias- bashful bladder syndrome

    F. Obsessive compulsive disorder
        1. coping response gone bad
        2. obsession = persistent thoughts
        3. compulsion = persistent behavior
        4. often do the thought or behavior to avoid or reduce the anxiety

    G. Post-traumatic stress disorder
        1. occurs in individuals who have experienced a severe and traumatic event
        2. classic symptoms
            a. re-experience the event
            b. avoid people places and things that remind you of the event
            c. general numbness and nonresponsiveness to others emotionally
            d. hyperaroused
            e. persists for at least one month after the event

III. Somatoform disorders
    A. somatoform disorders
        1. disorders of the body
        2. related to anxiety disorders
        3. primary symptom: physical symptom

    B. somatization disorder
        1. technical name for stress disorder
        2. symptoms: symptoms of stress
        3. most common onset: teen years

    C. Hypochondriasis
        1. complain about physical symptoms
        2. FEAR getting sick, not necessarily think you ARE sick
        3. Reader’s digest disorder
        4. excessive fear of death

    D. conversion disorder
        1. extremely rare
        2. show physical symptoms or disability with NO known cause
        3. history of a traumatic event that is related to your physical symptoms
        4. psychic blindness or deafness or paralysis
        5. person doesn’t care

IV. Dissociative disorders
    A. disorders of dissociation
        1. the individual dis-associates from his or her reality
        2. stop being who they are
        3. planned event- spontaneous

    B. Psychogenic Amnesia: dissociative amnesia
        1. loss of memory
        2. traumatic event
        3. no physical cause- no head injury
        4. Freud: repression
        5. cure: deal with the traumatic event

    C. Psychogenic or dissociative fugue state
        1. individual has amnesia
        2. individual flees
        3. no planning or foresight- they just run away
        4. response to a traumatic situation

    D. Dissociative personality disorder or multiple personality disorder: MPD
        1. VERY VERY rare
        2. individual develops separate personalities or identities
        3. male or female identities
        4. usually don’t know about one another
        5. response to severe stressor

V. Personality disorders
    A. personality disorder
        1. disorder of your personality
        2. individual has highly inflexible rigid and maladaptive traits
        3. traits interfere with a normal life
        4. problem is: they aren’t bothered by the maladaptive traits
        5. very, very difficult to treat

    B. occur in “clusters” of maladaptive traits
        1. eccentric or odd cluster
            a. paranoid personality
            b. schizoid personality
                i. cold, aloof, socially isolated
                ii. humorless
                iii. indifferent to praise or criticism

            c. schizotypal personality
                i. eccentric
                ii. not psychotic-no break with reality
                iii. engage in odd or eccentric behaviors, collections, activities

        2. dramatic or emotional and erratic cluster
            a. histrionic: overly emotional (high maintenance people)
            b. narcissistic personality
                i. self centered
                ii. grandiose
                iii. demand to be the center of attention and on stage at all times
                iv. “the star”

            c. borderline personality disorder
                i. border on the edge of reality
                ii. moody
                iii. self image problems
                iv. stalkers
                v. self possessed and believe that others should like them/love them

            d. antisocial personality disorder
                i. sociopath or psychopath
                ii. life history of lack of conscience for this person
                iii. lack ability to have remorse or guilt
                iv. three markers for violent antisocial kids:
                    1. history of fire setting
                    2. history of animal torture
                    3. continued bedwetting

        3. anxious or fearful
            a. avoidant personality
            b. dependent personality (lack of confidence)
            c. obsessive compulsive personality (control freak)
            d. passive aggressive personality
                i. aggression is done passively
                ii. aggressive through inaction

VI. Affective disorders
    A. disorders of your affect
        1. disorders of mood
        2. severely affect your daily mood and functioning
        3. abnormally high or low moods for an extended period of time (2 weeks)

    B. Mania
        1. rare alone
        2. may be schizophrenia in reality- hard to tell
        3. several levels
            a. hypomania: mild mania
                i. uninhibited, extroverted
                ii. complete confidence
                iii. dominate conversations
                iv. little sleep needs
                v. extreme energy
            b. acute mania
                i. out of control
                ii. attempt to display your supposed superior abilities
                iii. engage in bizarre behaviors
                iv. agitation and confusion
                v. dangerous if someone tries to stop you

    B. Depression
        1. usually appears in teens and 20’s but can even be found in infants
        2. highest undiagnosed cluster of individuals with depression: elderly
        3. symptoms
            a. prolonged feeling of sadness or despair
            b. low self esteem
            c. sense of worthlessness
            d. eating/sleeping disturbances
            e. somatic or physical complaints
            f. lack of enjoyment in daily activities
            g. can be suicidal
            h. for at least 2 weeks

        4. two kinds of depression
            a. reactive depression: react to a specific event
            b. endogenous depression: inherited or biological form

        5. levels of depression
            a. dysthymia: blues, low level depression
            b. simple depression
                i. show most symptoms
                ii. you are uncomfortable
                iii. still functioning

            c. acute depression
                i. no longer functioning
                ii. periods of no movement
                iii. withdrawal or inactivity
                iv. crying spells,
                v. eating and sleeping disturbances become disruptive
                vi. likely to be suicidal

            d. depressive stupor:
                i. bedridden
                ii. stops eating and drinking
                iii. hallucinate and become psychotic
                iv. lost all contact with reality

            e. suicide is an act of escape not of death
                i. people attempt to kill themselves to relieve the pain
                ii. feel there is no alternative
                iii. if you are dead you can’t feel

    C. bipolar disorder
        1. two poles or extremes to your mood swings
            a. mania
            b. depression
            c. most people tend towards one
            d. bipolar I: mania based
            e. bipolar II: depression based
            f. bipolar III: rapid cycling

        2. may have some kind of genetic or inherited component: familial
        3. diathesis stress model:
            a. may have a genetic or biological component
            b. takes environmental stressors to activate this tendency

        4. regulatory disorder much like diabetes
            a. your brain does not regulate dopamine and norepinephrine correctly
            b. don’t know why
            c. treatment: re-alter the set point of the brain using
                i. lithium chloride
                ii. antiseizure medications such as tegretol, gabapentin, tompramax, etc….

  VI. Schizophrenia
     A. definition
        1. break from reality
        2. you are unable to tell real from fake, what is in your head and what is in the real world

    B. incidence
        1. 1-2% of world population shows symptoms
        2. suggests a genetic component
        3. onset: late teens and early 20’s

    D. symptoms
        1. two kinds
            a. negative symptoms: lose behaviors
            b. positive symptoms: you “gain” bizarre behaviors

        2. negative:
            a. occur first
            b. withdraw from the world
            c. depression
            d. lose emotions and responsiveness to people
            e. lose self care skills

        3. positive symptoms
            a. disturbances of thoughts
                i. delusions or false beliefs
                ii  grandeur
                iii. persecution
                 iv. somatic delusions: made of glass, invisible
                 v. influence: others tell you to do bad behaviors
                 vi. reference: certain words or phrases are messages to do bad things
                 vii. nihilism; think you are dead or alien

            b. disturbances of perception
                i. hallucinations:
                    1. auditory first
                    2. tactile
                    3. then visual

                ii. loosening of associations
                    1. word salad: words become tossed together
                    2. clang associations: rhyme or make associations with end of sentence

         4. negative symptom: loss of affect
              a. lose ability to show emotion
            b. blank

            c. disturbances of speech
                i. lose speech and become mute (later stages)
                ii. echolalic: echo speech

    E. three stages
        1. prodromal stage: early stage
            a. loss of motivation
            b. withdrawal
            c. loss of self help skills
            d. depression

        2. active stage:
            a. positive symptoms of schizophrenia
            b. episodes
            c. last a lifetime
            d. initial responsiveness to medication is a good predictor
            e. only 75-80% of individuals with schizophrenia respond to treatment

    F. major types of schizophrenia
        1. paranoid:
            a. highest functioning
            b. most treatable
            c. major symptom: paranoid

        2. hebephrenic schizophrenic
            a. disorganized
            b. infantile
            c. silly
            d. lack of personal hygiene
            e. lots of word salad and neologisms

        3. catatonic schizophrenics
            a. extreme psychomotor disturbances
            b. loss of affect
            c. catatonic stupor: they don’t move and don’t emote
            d. sudden episodes of violence
            e. waxy flexibility

        4. undifferentiated: FLK (funny looking kid)

        5. residual: in remission

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6/14/06 Treating Mental Illness

I. Treating mental illness and mental disorders
    A. modify our language
        1. difference between
            a. individuals seeking treatment for a specific adjustment issue
            b. individuals with full blown mental illnesses

        2. therapies will differ depending on the level of needs
            a. short term therapy
            b. longer term therapy
            c. permanent basis therapy

    B. Who does therapy?
        1. psychologist
            a. licensed counseling or clinical psychologist
            b. MS or MA: limited practice
            c. PhD or PsyD
                i. PhD is technically a research degree
                ii. PsyD is a purely clinical degree

            d. counseling or clinical
                i. counseling: deals with less severe issues
                ii. clinical deals with more severe

            e. CAN NOT prescribe meds at this time

        2. Psychiatrist:
            a. Medical doctor first
            b. Specialization is in psychiatry
            c. Generally 1 psychiatrist for a large number of psychologists in a practice
            d. Mostly prescribe drugs

        3. Social workers
            a. Degree in social work
            b. MSW most likely
            c. Focus more on family dynamics
            d. Cannot prescribe drugs

      4. Psychiatric nurses
            a. MSN in psychiatric nursing
            b. Usually in an inpatient setting
            c. Can also do private practice
            d. IF they are a licensed nurse practitioner, they can prescribe meds

        5. psychoanalyst:
            a. any of the above
            b. who gets specialized post-grad training in psychotherapy (Freudian or neoFreudian) techniques

    C. Where is therapy done?
        1. mental hospitals or mental health units (wards)
            a. stand alone institution (state or private)
            b. unit within a hospital setting

        2. mental health clinic
        3. group homes or halfway houses
        4. private offices

    D. What happens when you go to therapy?
        1. initial stage
            a. develop a relationship with therapist (and the client)
            b. assess symptoms and make a treatment plan

        2. start treatment
            a. many different kinds
            b. long term or short term depending on
                i. treatment plan
                ii. type of therapy
                iii. type of problem

II. Types of therapies
    A. Behavior therapies
        1. focus on changing observable and measurable behaviors
        2. ABC’s of behavior
            a. Antecedents or precursors
            b. Actual behavior
            c. Consequences
            d. History of the behavior
        3. rearrange the contingencies to support appropriate behavior

    B. Cognitive therapies:
        1. combined behavior therapy focusing on thoughts rather than behavior
        2. focus on ABC’s
        3. Albert Ellis: Rational Emotive therapy or RET
             a. Teach you to think rationally in emotional situation
             b. Replace irrational coping strategies with rational coping strategies

        4. three strategies
            a. self downing: put downs
            b. hostility and rage
            c. low frustration tolerance

        5. cognitive restructuring: reframe the problem

    C. psychodynamic therapies or psychoanalysis
        1. insight oriented: want to uncover issues in your unconscious
        2. two major techniques
            a. dream analysis
                i. latent content: symbolic meaning
                ii. manifest content: concrete

            b. free association:
                i. client talks freely
                ii. therapist’s job is to make meaning out of the talk

        3. problems that emerge particularly out of this kind of therapy
            a. resistance: client refuses to discuss the problem or avoids the problem
            b. transferences:
                 i. client begins to feel towards the therapist the feelings they feel about an important person in their life
                ii. fall in love, hate, angry

            c. counter-transference when the therapist has feeling back (if severe counter transference, the therapist should end the relationship)

    D. humanistic therapy
        1. client centered therapy
            a. client has thwarted self actualization, therapist’s goal is to restart the client on the path to self actualization
            b. incongruence between their real self and their ideal self

        2. several critical techniques
            a. genuineness
            b. rephrasing technique
            c. true interest in getting people better
            d. empathy: understand client’s feelings
                i. understand but not accept
                ii. “I understand you felt angry, but it is not okay to hit people”

        3. Gestalt or confrontive therapy
            a. Form of humanism
            b. Confront the individual with their irrationalities

    E. Pharmacology
        1. Schizophrenia
            a. Most common and first approach is through drugs
            b. Too much dopamine (we don’t know why, but its too much)
            c. Antipsychotic drug
                i. Thorazine or stellazine, navane, serentil
                ii. Atypicals: newer drugs like respiridone (risperidol)
                iii. Side effects: tardive dyskinesia- causes parkinson’s like effects

            d. behavior and some cognitive therapy focusing on life skills and social skills

        2. Mood disorders and primarily depression
            a. Most common disorder
            b. Wide acting drugs: ]
                i. Affect norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine
                ii. Elavil, amitrytalline
                iii. Problem: wide acting

        3. more specific treatments
            a. anxiety based depression: Serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors or SSRI’s (prozac, lexapro, Zoloft)
           
b. lack of energy based depression: NE: NSRI like effexor; welbutrin
           
c. lack of motivation with lack of energy: DA agonist with NSRI
           
d. other option: anxiolytic like valium, Librium, ativan (problem is that they are highly addictive)
            
e. replace inappropriate coping responses with appropriate coping responses

            f. http://www.crazymeds.org : GOOD WEBSITE FOR READING ABOUT THESE DRUGS!

    F. work on the brain
        1. electro convulsive shock therapy or ECT
            a. only used for depression now
            b. used to be used for schizophrenia and it was completely worthless
            c. control-alt-del to the brain

        2. transcranial magnetic stimulation
            a. electrical stimulator from chest to your brain
            b. unit is implanted in your chest
            c. when you feel depressed, you deliver a mild shock to your brain
            d. also use for epilepsy

        3. other surgeries (Not used anymore in general)
            a. frontal lobotomies
                i. sever the connections between the frontal lobe and limbic system
                ii. problem: lost ALL emotions

            b. amygdalectomies or brain sectioning

    G. other types of therapies
        1. group therapy: therapy conducted with a group of people
        2. family therapy: focuses on the family and NOT just the individual with the mental illness
        3. self help groups
        4. combination therapies and in fact MOST therapists use a combination of approaches

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