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Almedom AM. 1991. Infant Feeding in Urban Low-Income Households in Ethiopia. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 25:97-109. [infant nutrition; Africa]

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Brown EP. 1991. Sex and Starvation: Famine and Three Chadian Societies. In The Political Economy of African Famine. R Downs, D Kerner, S Reyna, eds. pp. 293-321. [disaster; social class; gender; Africa; Chad]

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Cove J. 1978. Survival or Extinction: Reflections on the Problem of Famine in Tsimshian and Kaguru Mythology. In Extinction and Survival in Human Populations. C Laughlin, I Brady, eds. pp. 231-244. Columbia University Press. [starvation; mythology; North American Indian; Africa; Tsimshian; Kuguru]

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Curry J. 1989. Occupation and Drought Vulnerability: Case Studies from a Village in Niger. In African Food Systems in Crisis, Part One: Microperspectives. R Huss-Ashmore, S Katz, eds. pp. 230-260. Gordon and Breach. [drought and hunger; malnutrition; Africa; Niger]

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de Garine I. 1991. Seasonal Food Shortage, Famine and Socio-Economic Change among the Massa and Mussey of Northern Cameroon. In Famine and Food Security in Africa and Asia: Indigenous Responses and External Intervention to Avoid Hunger. HG Bohle, T Canon, G Hugo, et al, eds. pp. 83-99. [starvation; hunger; development; Africa; Cameroon]

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de Garine I. 1997. Food Preferences and Taste in an African Perspective: A Word of Caution. In Food Preferences and Taste. H Macbeth, ed. pp. 187-207. Berghahn. [cultural affects on food choice; Africa; Cameroon; Massa; Muzey; Yassa; Mvae]

den Hartog AP. 1973. The Use of Rodents as Food in Tropical Africa. Fao Nutrition Newsletter 11(2):1-14. [foodstuffs; mice; rats; Africa]

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Dettwyler KA. 1991. Growth Status of Children in Rural Mali: Implications of for Nutrition Education Programs. American Journal of Human Biology 3:447-462. [child nutrition; growth status; nutritional education; Africa; Mali]

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Dirks R. 1989. Famine, Hunger Seasons, and Relief-Induced Agonism. In African Food Systems in Crisis, Part One: Microperspectives. R Huss-Ashmore, S Katz, eds. pp. 295-302. New York: Gordon and Breach. [seasonal starvation; relief-induced agonism; rituals of conflict; Africa]

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Feyisetan BJ. 1990. Postpartum Sexual Abstinence, Breastfeeding, and Child Spacing among Yoruba Women in Urban Nigeria. Social Biology 37:110-127. [infant feeding; contraception; Africa]

Fleuret P, Fleuret A. 1980. Nutritional Implications of Staple Food Crop Successions in Usambara, Tanzania. Human Ecology 8:311-327. [ecology; Africa; Tanzania; Usambara Mountains]

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Franke R, Chasin B. 1980. Seeds of Famine: Ecological Destruction and the Development Dilemma in the West African Sahel. Osmun Publishers. [mass starvation; ecology; Africa; Western Sahel]

Fratkin E, Roth EA, Nathan M. 1999. When Nomads Settle: The Effects of Commoditization, Nutritional Change, and Formal Education on Ariaal and Rendille Pastoralists. Current Anthropology 40(5):729-735. [sedentarization; dietary change; nomads; East Africa; Kenya; Ariaal; Rendille]

Galvin KA, Coppock DL, Leslie PW. 1994. Diet, Nutrition, and Pastoral Strategy. In African Pastoralist Systems: An Integrated Approach. E Fratkin, KA Galvin, EA Roth, eds. pp. 113-131. Lynne Rienner. [ecology; nutritional status; Africa; Kenya; Ethiopia; Turkana; Borana]

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Gray S. 1996. Ecology of Weaning among Nomadic Pastoralists of Kenya: Maternal Thinking, Maternal Behaviour, and Human Adaptive Strategies. Human Biology 68:437-462. [infant feeding; food systems; Africa]

Gray SJ. 1995. Correlates of Breastfeeding Frequency among Nomadic Pastoralists of Turkana, Kenya: A Retrospective Study. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 98:239-255. [infant feeding; Africa]

Guyer J. 1987. Feeding African Cities: Studies in Regional Social History. Indiana University Press. [food system; urban markets; supply; Africa]

Hansen A. 1986. Coping with Famine, Drought, and War in Sub-Saharan Africa: Natural Disasters and Cultural Responses. Studies in Third World Societies 36:227-254. [poverty; disaster; mass starvation; indigenous coping strategies; social responses; Africa]

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Hudelson P, Dzikuna H, Kirkwood B. 1999. Dietary Patterns in a Rural Area of Ghana and Their Relevance for Vitamin a Consumption. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 38(2):183-. [dietary; vitamin A; Africa; Ghana]

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Huss-Ashmore R. 1996. Livestock, Nutrition, and Intrahousehold Resource Control in Uasin Gishu District, Kenya. Human Ecology 24(2):191-213-. [ecology; intrahousehold food allocation (distribution); Africa; Kenya]

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Huss-Ashmore R, Katz S. 1991. African Food Systems in Crisis, Part Two: Contending with Change. Gordon and Breach. [famine; disaster; seasonal hunger; ecology; social relations; Africa]

Ikpe EB. 1994. Food and Society in Nigeria: A History of Food Customs, Food Economy, and Culture Change, 1900-1989. Franz Steiner Verlag. [modernization; Africa]

Jackson FLC. 1992. Cassava (Manihot Esculenta) in Liberia: History, Geography, Traditional Processing and Cyanogenic Acid Levels. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 28:227-242. [food use; manioc; Africa; Liberia]

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Jarosz LA. 1993. Liberian Practices in Feeding Infants Water, Breastmilk and First Food. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 30(221):240-. [infant feeding; Africa]

Jenike M. 1995. Variation in Body Fat and Muscle Mass: Responses to Seasonal Hunger among Tropical Horticulturalists, Zaire. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 1995:227-249. [seasonal hunger; physical responses; Africa; Zaire (Congo)]

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Kigutha H, Staveren van W, Hautvast J. 1998. Elderly under Nutritional Stress: A Seasonal Study on Food Consumption and Nutritional Status in Kenya. Internation Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 49:423-433. [season hunger; Africa; Kenya]

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Kolata G. 1974. !Kung Hunter-Gatherers: Feminism, Diet, and Birth Control. Science 185:932-934. [dietary pattern; women; maternal nutrition; reproduction; hunter-gatherers; Africa; Kung]

Kotler NG. 1992. Frontiers of Nutrition and Food Security in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Smithsonian Institution Press. [collected essays; world hunger]

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Kumar S, Siandwazi C. 1994. Maize in Zambia: Effects of Technological Change on Food Consumption and Nutrition. In Agricultural Commercialization, Economic Development, and Nutrition. Jv Braun, E Kennedy, eds. pp. 295-308. [change and development; food use; Africa; Zambia]

Laughlin C, Jr. 1978. Adaptation and Exchange in So: A Diachronic Study of Deprivation. In Extinction and Survival in Human Populations. C Laughlin, Jr., I Brady, eds. pp. 76-94. Columbia University Press. [social relations; disaster; hunger; economic exchange; Africa; Uganda; So]

Lawrence M, Singh J, Lawrence F, et al. 1985. The Energy Cost of Common Daily Activities in African Women: Increased Expenditure in Pregancy? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 42:753-763. [physiology; energy expenditure; women; pregnancy; Africa]

Lee R. 1968. What Hunters Do for a Living, or How to Make out on Scarce Resources. In Man the Hunter. R Lee, I DeVore, eds. pp. 30-48. Aldine. [ecology; Africa; !Kung]

Lee R. 1969. Eating Christmas in the Kalahari. Natural History 78(10):14-22. [social relations; food giving; sharing; Africa; Kung San]

Lee R. 1969. Kung Bushman Subsistence: An Input-Output Analysis. In Environment and Cultural Behavior. AP Vayda, ed. pp. 47-79. Natural History Press. [ecology; dietary patterns; Africa; Kalahari Desert]

Lee R. 1973. Monogongo: The Ethnography of a Major Wild Food Resource. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 3:89-105. [ecology; foodstuffs; nuts; Africa;

Lee R. 1979. The !Kung San: Men, Women, and Work in a Foraging Society. Cambridge University Press. [ecology; diet patterns; Africa; Kalahari Desert]

Lentz C, ed. 1998. Changing Food Habits: Case Studies from Africa, South America, and Europe. Gordon and Breach. [collected papers; change; Africa; South America; Europe]

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Little MA, Galvin K, Leslie PW. 1988. Health and Energy Requirements of Nomadic Turkana Pastoralists. In Coping with Uncertainty in Food Supply. I de Garine, G Harrison, eds. pp. 290-317. Oxford University Press. [nutritional need; caloric requirements; Africa; Turkana]

Mackintosh M. 1989. Gender, Class, and Rural Transition: Agribusiness and the Food Crisis in Senegal. Zed Books. [hunger; gender relations; development; agribusiness; Africa; Senegal]

Manda SOM. 1999. Birth Intervals, Breastfeeding, and Determinants of Childhood Mortality in Malawi. Social Science and Medicine 48:301-312. [infant feeding; Africa]

Mann GV. 1963. Diet and Disease among the Milk and Meat Eating Masai Warriors of Tanganyika. Food and Nutrition 34:104-. [meat eating; Africa; Masai]

Marshall L. 1961. Sharing, Talking, and Giving: Relief of Social Tensions among Kung Bushmen. Africa 31:231-249. [social relations; sharing; giving; Africa; Kung San]

McAlpin M. 1987. Famine Relief Policy in India: Six Lessons for Africa. [famine; relief; government policy; South Asia; Africa]

McCullough A, Kirksey A, Wachs TD. 1990. Vitamin B Status of Egyptian Mothers: Relation to Infant Behavior and and Maternal-Infant Interaction. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51:108-. [nutritional status; mother-infant behavior; social interaction; Africa; Egypt]

McMillan DE, ed. 1991. Anthropology and Food Policy: Human Dimensions of Food Policy in Africa and Latin America. University of Georgia Press. [nutrition; applied anthropology]

Mellor JW, Gavian S. 1987. Famine: Causes, Prevention, and Relief. Science 235(4788):539-545. [food shortage; Africa]

Milton K. 1985. Ecological Foundations for Subsistence Strategies among the Mbuti Pygmies. Human Ecology 12:71-78. [ecology; food procurement; Africa; Congo; Mbuti Pygmies]

Miracle M. 1961. "Seasonal Hunger:" A Vague Concept and an Unexplored Problem. Bulletin De L'ifan 23 (Series B):173-. [undernutrition; Africa]

Munroe R, Munroe R, Nerlove S, et al. 1969. Effects of Population Density on Food Concerns in Three East African Societies. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 10(3):161-171. [symbolic meaning; expressive culture (stories, dreams, etc ); population density; hunger; Logoli; Gusii; Kipsigis; East Africa]

Netting R. 1986. Cultural Ecology. Waveland. [ecology; subsistance systems; Africa (Kung San, East African Pastoralists); North America (Northwest Coast Indians); Europe (Swiss)]

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Odebiyi A. 1989. Food Taboos in Maternal and Child Health: The Views of Traditional Healers in Ile-Ife Nigeria. Social Science and Medicine 28:985-996. [taboos; child health; Africa; Nigeria]

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Oguntona CRB, Razaq MA, Akintola TT. 1998. Pattern of Dietary Intake and Consumption of Street Foods among Nigerian Students. Nutrition and Health 12:247-256. [nutritional intake; food use; students; Africa; Nigeria]

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Oni G, Brown K. 1988. Force Feeding: A Traditional Feeding Practice of Infants and Young Children in Kwara State Nigeria. In Toward More Efficacy in Child Survival Strategies. I Sirogeldin, W Mosley, eds. The Johns Hopkins University Press. [food habits; infant and child feeding practices; Africa; Nigeria]

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Pankhurst R. 1966. The Great Ethiopian Famine of 1888-1892. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences 21(2 and 3):95-124, 271-194-. [famine; Ethiopia; Africa]

Paque C. 1984. Infant Salt Taboos in Morocco. Current Anthropology 25:237-238. [infant feeding; food taboo; Africa; Morocco]

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Quinn PJ. 1959. Food and Feeding Habits of the Pedi: With Special Reference to Identification, Classification, Preparation and Nutritional Value. Witwatersrand University Press. [food habits; Africa; South Africa; Pedi]

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Salvador ML. 1987. Food for the Holy Ghost: Ritual Exchange in Azorean Festivals. In Time out of Time: Essays on the Festival. A Falassi, ed. pp. 244-260. University of New Mexico Press. [food in ritual; festival; religion; symbol and meaning; Europe; Africa; Azores]

Schmitt E, Graebner W. 1991. Sukumawiki: Food and Drink in the Nairobi Novels of Meja Mwangi. In Popular Culture in East Africa. W Graebner, ed. pp. 133-151. Rodopi. [foodways; Africa]

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Sheehan E. 1993. In the Heart of Somalia. The New York Review of Books XL(1-2):38-53. [famine; Africa; Somalia, 1992-93]

Shellie-Dessert K, Hosfield GL. 1990. Implications of Genetic Variability for Dry Bean Cooking Time and Novel Cooking Methods for Fuelwood Conservation in Rwanda. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 24:195-211. [food processing; legumes; cookery; ecology; Africa; Rwanda]

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Simoons F. 1974. Rejection of Fish as Human Food in Africa: A Problem in History and Ecology. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 3:89-105. [food taboo; fish; Africa]

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Turnbull C. 1972. The Mountain People. Simon and Schuster. [famine; social relations; Africa; Uganda; Ik]

Turnbull C. 1978. Rethinking the Ik: A Functional Non-Social System. In Extinction and Survival in Human Populations. C Laughlin, I Brady, eds. pp. 49-75. Columbia University Press. [famine; social relations; Africa; Uganda; Ik]

Vaughan M. 1987. The Story of an African Famine: Gender and Famine in Twentieth-Century Malawi. Cambridge University Press. [famine; Africa; Malawi]

Vermeer DE. 1971. Geophagy among the Ewe of Ghana. Ethnology 10:56-72. [food habits; geophagy (dirt-eating); health; disease; Africa; Ghana; Ewe]

Vermeer DE, Ferrell RE, Jr. 1985. Nigerian Geophagical Clay: A Tradition Antidiarrheal Pharmaceutical. Science 227:364-366. [food habits; geophagy (dirt-eating); disease; diarrhea; Africa; Nigeria]

Waldemann E. 1973. Seasonal Variations in Malnutrition in Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 67:431-. [seasonal hunger; malnutrition; Africa]

Watts M. 1983. Silent Violence: Food, Famine and Peasantry in Northern Nigeria. University of California Press. [famine; Africa; Nigeria]

Webb P, Habtu Y. 1994. Famine in Africa. National Geographic Research and Exploration 10:158-171. [famine; Africa]

Webb P, von Braun J. 1994. Famine and Food Security in Ethiopia: Lessons for Africa. John Wiley. [famine; Africa; Ethiopia]

Webb P, von Braun J, Yohannes Y. 1992. Famine in Ethiopia: Policy Implications of Coping Failure at National and Household Levels. International Food Policy Research Institute. [famine; political policy; Africa; Ethiopia]

Whittemore RD, Beverly EA. 1996. Mandinka Mothers and Nurslings: Power and Reproduction. Medical Anthropology Quarterly 10(1):45-62. [infant feeding; Africa]

Wilmsen E. 1978. Seasonal Effects of Dietary Intake on Kalahari San. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Proceedings 37:65-72. [dietary intake; food system; ecology; South Africa; Kalahari Desert; San]

Wilmsen E. 1982. Studies in Diet, Nutrition, and Fertility among a Group of Kalahari Buhmen in Botswana. Social Science Information 21:95-125. [diet; nutrition; fertility; Africa; Botswana; San]

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