2nd EXAM ANSWERS
1. According to the lectures (and the readings), which of the following, if any, is not a reasonable (or not an accurate) statement about fascism?
a) Nazi Germany, Italy, and Russia all claimed that they were "fascist" prior to WWII.
b) Fascist regimes tend to be racist.
c) Fascist governments insist that the interests of "the state" take precedence over individual interests.
d) Fascist governments allow private property.
e) All of the above are reasonable/accurate.
2. Which of the following, if any, is not common to both "feudalism" and "fascism"?
a) Leaders who are not accountable to the democratic process.
b) Difficulty in persuading the leaders that they have made a mistake.
c) Difficulty in removing leaders who make significant mistakes.
d) An assumption that the "leader knows best."
e) All of the above are common to both feudalism and fascism.
3. Among the main elements of "capitalism" is/are:
a) an emphasis on allowing individuals and private companies to get as much profit as the
b) can legitimately earn.
c) the assumption that "greed" generally benefits society as a whole.
d) the assumption that the protection of "private property" is essential to the welfare of the society as a whole.
e) All of the above are "key elements" of the "capitalist philosophy."
4. Which of the following, if any, is not compatible with the concept of "West European-style socialism"?
a) The assumption that the government needs to play a major role in society in order to promote the general welfare of all citizens.
b) The belief that the "profit motive" is pretty much always going to be in conflict with the best interests of the public as a whole.
c) The belief that the government needs to provide a substantial "safety net" for everyone in the form of, for example, "free" medical care and generous unemployment and retirement benefits.
d) All of the above are compatible with "socialism."
5. In theory, "communism" includes which of the following?
a) The greatest possible emphasis on the general welfare.
b) Maximum possible economic efficiency.
c) Maximum possible protection of "genuine civil rights."
d) Maximum possible "fairness."
e) All of the above.
6. Which of the following areas where the Communists could legitimately claim significant success were those achievements made at considerable personal cost to many of the people directly involved?
7. Which of the following, if any, is not among the reasons the Soviet system failed?
Changes in communications technology which made it easier for Soviet citizens to learn the truth about how their system in fact "stacked up against" Western countries.
a) The ultimate failure of the Soviet educational system to turn out any truly decent scientists and engineers.
b) The Soviet government"s serious exaggeration of its claims about its alleged superiority over Western capitalism.
c) With its lack of competition, the Soviet economy was not able to either keep up with technological innovation or adequately meet consumer demands.
d) All of the above are significant reasons the system failed.
8. A political/economic system that places an emphasis, at least in theory, on the "general welfare" is called
e) In fact, fascist, socialist, and communist systems all have claimed that they are doing what is best for the "general welfare." [One could even add the feudal system to this list. -R.P.]
9. Which of the following, if any, is it reasonable to say about "capitalism" vs. "socialism"?
a) A capitalist system is invariably more democratic than a socialist system.
b) Even strong supporters of "capitalism" are forced to acknowledge that socialism is fairer to more people than capitalism; however, they counter with the claim that "capitalism" is more "efficient" than socialism.
c) Capitalists are more inclined than socialists to assume that society can in fact be improved.
d) None of the above is an accurate comment.
10. The article, "Socialism: More than Ever"A compelling Need," states, or at least clearly implies, which of the following?
a) Capitalism is making life increasingly harder for the working majority.
b) Democracy is badly distorted by the domination of politics by "big money."
c) Capitalism has produced unprecedented advances in knowledge, technology, and wealth, but the lion"s share of the benefits from these advances are being enjoyed by fewer and fewer people.
d) All of the above are stated or implied in this article.
11. According to the article, "Is "human nature" up to it?"
a) The promotion of "capitalist greed" is not in fact the best way to run a society"the majority of ordinary working people are perfectly capable of working together for their mutual benefit.
b) "Human nature" in fact limits the extent to which true socialism is possible.
c) Unfortunately, socialist principals have been thoroughly discredited by recent events.
d) None of the above.
12. According to Kristof, "China Sees "Market-Leninism" as Way to Future,"
a) corruption has become increasingly important in China, threatening to ruin the Communist Party itself.
b) the current situation in China resembles fascism under Mussolini in Italy and Franco in Spain.
c) the communist leaders want to have a "market economy" while avoiding anything like real democracy.
d) All of the above.
13. According to the article, "Capitalism: Frequently Asked Questions,"
a) capitalism is the only political-economic system based on the primacy of individual rights.
b) a "free market" encourages individuals to do things that in fact benefit everyone else.
c) under capitalism, as the rich become richer the poor also benefit.
d) All of the above.
14. Which of the following, if any, is not argued in the article "Socialism vs. Capitalism: Which is the Moral System?"
a) Under socialism the state takes from those who work the hardest and produce the most and gives to those who do the least.
b) Capitalism rewards hard work and achievement.
c) The free market does a much better job of meeting the needs of society than government regulations.
d) All of the above are argued in this article.
15. According to Albert Einstein,
a) socialism is a better system than capitalism, but science cannot in fact prove this.
b) socialism is the best available system, as demonstrated by scientific research.
c) science can in fact provide us with answers to political/ethical questions
d) None of the above.
16. Which of the following, if any, was not stated (or at least implied) in the Washington Post article on North Korea?
a) A few years ago North Korea was at "the crossroads of life and death" but it has managed to avoid the worst"thanks first and foremost to food aid from the West, particularly the United States.
b) Despite recent diplomatic openings, North Korea remains among the world"s most isolated and opaque countries.
c) Recent improvements notwithstanding, North Korea will remain dependent on outside food aid for the foreseeable future.
d) According to a U.S. congressional study, "The United States has replaced the Soviet Union as a primary benefactor of North Korea."
e) All of the above are either directly stated in this article or clearly implied.
17. Which of the following, if any, is not an argument presented in the "Greed" video?
a) While the "profit motive" is a great motivator, and therefore, people have a "right" to get rich, those who are successful should give something back to society.
b) The best thing the most successful people can do with their money is to reinvest it and thereby create more jobs"they are good at doing this, and new jobs will benefit society more than giving to charity.
c) The profit motive encourages efficiency and innovation, that is, a for profit company is more likely than a not-for-profit organization to find "a better way"....
d) Competition does the best job of ensuring society"s needs are met.
e) All of the above are argued in the video.
18. The main difference between a "political" and a "dictionary" conservative is
a) a political conservative is more interested in limiting the role of government than in avoiding major change in the status quo.
b) a dictionary conservative is more inclined to try to lower taxes.
c) a political conservative is more inclined to challenge liberal policy proposals.
d) a dictionary conservative is probably going to be more willing to support a plan to eliminate the inheritance tax.
19. A "political liberal" tends to believe
a) that society"s problems can be solved, or at least best dealt with, through government action.
b) the conservative emphasis on "individual initiative" and the "profit motive" is self serving.
c) the effort to achieve fairness cannot reasonably be left to an "invisible hand.
d) All of the above.
20. Which of the following, if any, is not an example of "ideological inconsistency"?
a) Governor Bush advocating mandatory school testing.
b) Vice President Gore advocating voluntary school testing.
c) Governor Bush advocating serious restrictions on legal abortions.
d) Vice President Gore advocating the addition to Medicare of prescription drug benefits.
e) All of the above are examples of ideological inconsistency.