POS 101 R. R. Pope
Citizens & Governance Spring 2000
1ST EXAM- Spring 2000

1. Which of the following is not a part of the primary focus of this course?
  1. The details of contemporary American politics.
  2. "Comparative politics," including a substantial number of examples from Russian politics and culture, the instructor's area of expertise.
  3. What we can realistically expect from government..
  4. The limitations "human nature" places on what we can expect government to do.
2. Which of the following is an example of "politics."
  1. An effort by employees of a firm to "restrict" the changes that a new boss wants to make.
  2. The recent effort by ISU students taking POS 101 to pressure the University Administration into granting them credit for the constitution test requirement for this class.
  3. An effort by a teenage son and daughter to persuade their parents to let them go on a skiing trip with their friends.
  4. All of the above to some extent involve "politics."
3. Based on our discussion in this class, which of the following cannot reasonably be included in list of reasons for why government exists?
  1. Government seems to be needed to facilitate solving collective problems.
  2. Government, at its best, has proven capable of providing complete "cradle to grave" security for members of society.
  3. Government seems to be needed to provide security.
  4. We seem to have a need for "order"­which government provides.

4. Which of the following is not a significant function of government, especially in a political system like we have here in the U.S.?
  1. Taking the initiative in identifying and solving problems that affect the community as a whole.
  2. Solving individual problems for all members of the society.
  3. Providing security for the community from, for example foreign military threats, international terrorism, and communicable diseases
  4. Providing "order" in society, for example, through passing and enforcing traffic and other laws and regulations.
5. The type of political system that tries to achieve the "best possible system" through maximum possible control of essentially every aspect of society is called:
  1. Anarchic.
  2. Authoritarian.
  3. Totalitarian
  4. Democratic.
  5. None of the above.


6. Which of the following statements is least compatible with the explanation of "human nature" we have discussed­if it is possible at all?
  1. We are capable of working out a theoretically perfect society.
  2. We are capable of finding at least partial solutions to significant social and political problems.
  3. We can in fact develop fully satisfactory and effective solutions to problems of race relations, abortion, etc. which will be universally accepted.
  4. We can effectively manage a political system with limited governmental power and "checks and balances."
7. Which of the following statements is compatible with the explanation of "human nature" we have discussed?
  1. If people were perfect, laws wouldn't be necessary.
  2. We are good enough to make the American political system possible, but bad enough to make it necessary.
  3. We can make improvements in many areas of our society such as welfare, education, and law enforcement, but we can never completely eliminate problems in these and similar areas.
  4. All of the above are compatible with the view of human nature discussed in this course.

8. Which of the following is not an example of "politically relevant" selective perception?
  1. The tendency political conservatives have to not see all the merits of specific government programs such as taxpayer support for the arts.
  2. The tendency some students have to not fully recognize that they do need to work on their writing.
  3. The tendency we all have to not fully recognize actual and potential problems in government policies that we basically agree with
  4. The tendency supporters of Al Gore have to not fully recognize the merit in at least some of Bill Bradley's criticism of their candidate.

9. Based on our discussion of "selective perception," which of the following statements can be effectively defended? Selective perception
  1. can be fully compensated for once we understand what is going on.
  2. helps to explain why Republicans and Democrats disagree over things such as how best to spend the current budget surplus and healthcare reform.
  3. tends to influence our thinking only when we don't fully understand a situation.
  4. is a major problem only for people with a limited education who are therefore not going to be aware of this phenomenon.

10. Which of the following is the best example of "selective attention"?
  1. Concluding that when a "fellow Republican" and someone whose opinion we respect is talking about a Democratic proposal for educational reform, that he/she fully agrees with our complete rejection of the plan­when this is not in fact the case.
  2. Declining an invitation to hear a speaker being sponsored by those who support the unionization of ISU faculty­which we are inclined to oppose.
  3. Not noticing the fact that a friend has just made a good point in an argument we are having.
  4. Laughing at a professors jokes­even when they are not funny.

11. Based on our discussion of "political culture," which of the following is the most defensible statement?

  1. It is only because the Russians lived under Communism for 74 years that so many of them believe they need a "strong leader."
  2. "Cultural differences" fully explain why other countries do things differently than here in America.
  3. Different historical experiences and traditions help to explain why, for example, European countries generally have much stricter gun control laws than we have here in the U.S.
  4. Our superior political culture fully explains why America can legitimately be considered the number one country in the world.
12. Which of the following best fits Shively's definition of "power"?
  1. Power involves the threat or use of force/coercion and persuasion.
  2. Power involves the ability to take legally sanctioned action.
  3. Power involves coercion only; persuasion is the basis for "influence."
  4. None of the above.

13. According to Robert Bierstedt in his essay "On Power"
  1. Given enough careful thought, "power" can be completely and clearly defined.
  2. Power involves the use of "force" or "coercion" and "influence."
  3. "Authority" is "institutionalized power."

14. Which of the following is the best example of "power" at work--as defined for the purposes of this class?
  1. Two police officers asking a group of college students to disburse­jokingly suggesting that they go back to studying.
  2. The commander of a heavily armed UN peacekeeping force which is escorting a group of Serbian refugees ordering an angry crowd of Kosavar Albanians to disburse.
  3. A parent making a suggestion to an adult child in response to a question the son or daughter has asked about a job offer they are considering.
  4. A street person pestering a passerby for "a little change."

15. Which of the following is an example of primarily "influence"--as defined for the purposes of this class?
  1. Jesse Jackson's efforts to get the Decatur School Board to reverse its decision to expel the students who got into the fight at the football game.
  2. The current presidential candidates attempting to get people to vote for them in the primary elections.
  3. President Clinton's efforts to get the Republican controlled Congress to raise the minimum wage.
  4. All of the above are examples of efforts to exert influence more than apply power.

16. Which of the following is an example of "power" and "influence" combined­as these terms have been defined for the purposes of this class?
  1. A police officer explaining to a group of college students that they need to disburse for safety reasons­and what will happen (tickets and possible arrest) if they don't obey his lawful order.
  2. The Decatur School Board's decision to expel the high school students for fighting.
  3. The TV ad the tobacco industry is currently running that shows a store owner refusing to sell cigarets to kids who are clearly under
  4. A mugger who grabs a woman's purse and runs.

17. Which of the following, if any, is not a good example of either power or influence­as defined for the purposes of this class?
  1. A parent asking a teenager to finish their homework before watching TV.
  2. A police officer discussing the D.A.R.E (drug abuse) program with a 5th grade class.
  3. A group of college students in an art class discussing the different ways it is possible to interpret a painting by Picasso.
  4. A prison inmate attempting to convince the parole board that he has been rehabilitated and is no longer a threat to society.
  5.  

18. Based on our discussion in class, which of the following cannot reasonably be considered a "strength of democracy"?

  1. The ability to always move quickly to deal with issues­no matter how complex and controversial they might be.
  2. The ability, in general, to encourage participation in the system by a wide variety of people, especially in comparison with non-democratic political systems
  3. The ability to peacefully accommodate a relatively wide range of political views.
  4. The ability to peacefully change political leadership through regularly scheduled elections.


19. Based on our discussion in class, which of the following can reasonably be considered a "strength of democracy"?

  1. The ability to completely eliminate conflict in society through regularly scheduled competitive elections.
  2. The ability, through elections, to select political leaders who are capable of finding solutions to society's problems that essentially everyone can support.
  3. The ability to always avoid the use of armed force in order to settle conflicts.
  4. The ability to eventually encourage compromise when there are conflicting points of view over, for example, healthcare reform.

20. Which of the following is not one of the "four functions of government" listed by Shively?
  1. Transfer of resources.
  2. Subsidies with strings attached.
  3. Regulation.
  4. Research and development.
  5. Development and administration.

 

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POS 101R. R. Pope
Citizens & GovernanceSpring 2000
2nd EXAM

1. A political system in which the average citizen is believed to owe allegiance to the ruler of a territory or country in return for protection.
  1. Fascism.
  2. Dictatorship.
  3. Democracy.
  4. Totalitarianism.
  5. None of the above.

2. One of the major characteristics of a fascist political system is
  1. an emphasis on equality for all citizens.
  2. the development of an ideal system in which "justice for all" can prevail.
  3. the requirement that all citizens put the interests of the state first.
  4. the government's attempt to control every aspect of society.
  5. None of the above.

3. Which of the following is the most significant difference between "capitalism" and West European-style "socialism"?
  1. The degree to which the political system is democratic.
  2. The degree to which the government attempts to solve social problems.
  3. The extent to which individual liberties, such as freedom of speech and freedom of conscious are protected.
  4. The degree to which the government responds to public opinion.
  5. There are major differences between socialism and capitalism in all of the above areas.

4. In which of the following areas is there the greatest difference between "socialism" as practiced in the West and "communism" as it was practiced in the Soviet Union?
  1. The system's emphasis, at least in theory, on equality among citizens.
  2. The system's emphasis on the interests of the individual vs. the interests of the group.
  3. The degree of control the government attempts to exercise over society.
  4. The system's assumption regarding the proper role of government in society.

5. According to Shively,
  1. in the nineteenth century "socialists" believed that government should intervene as little as possible in people's daily lives.
  2. nineteenth century "liberals" believed in a strong central government capable of protecting the rights of individual citizens.
  3. socialists were not as suspicious as liberals of the concentration of government power.
  4. None of the above is stated or implied by Shively.

6. Which of the following statements about Communism, if any, does not fit well with what the instructor said in class?

  1. Soviet Communism was one of the grandest political, economic, and social experiments of all time.
  2. The Soviet system managed significant accomplishments in a number of areas, especially in its early years.
  3. Exaggerated propaganda made a major contribution to undermining the legitimacy of the Soviet system
  4. The Soviet system ultimately proved incapable of generating and implementing significant innovation.
  5. All of the above are compatible with what the instructor said in class.

7.. With reference to H. Brand in "Why the Soviet Economy Failed," which of the following statements, if any, is not accurate?
  1. Although he ultimately failed, Gorbachev made a grand effort to reform the Soviet system.
  2. The Soviet system was unable to adopt the new technology it needed to keep productivity from declining.
  3. Ultimately the Soviet system lost its legitimacy with the public in part because it was unable to deliver on its promises.
  4. All of the above are either directly stated by Brand or can reasonably be inferred from his argument.

8. According to the "Greed" video, which of the following, if any, is not "supported by the evidence"­or at least by the arguments presented in the video?
  1. The profit motive makes a major contribution to economic prosperity.
  2. It is best to encourage successful investors to continue to make money because, in general, they can only do this by producing goods and/or services that benefit the economy.
  3. In general, government is not nearly as efficient as private enterprise in meeting society's economic needs.
  4. According to at least some people, giving to charity is not in fact the best way for successful businessmen to use their resources.
  5. All of the above are supported by what was presented in the video.

9. If the argument presented in the "Greed" video is accurate, then which of the following, if any, logically follows?
  1. Efforts to "privatize" the public schools, like the Emerson Project, are, at least in principal, a good idea.
  2. It is probably a good idea to "privatize" the Air Traffic Control system.
  3. Lowering the tax rate on the wealthiest people in the country should lead to improvements in the standard of living for everyone­because the wealthy will have more money to invest.
  4. The fact that the wealthy are able to flaunt their riches through "conspicuous consumption" is not all bad.
  5. All of the above follow from the perspective presented in the "Greed" video.
10. Which of the following, if any, is not supported by or suggested in the Monitor article "Prosperity creates era of $2300 down pillows"?
  1. "Conspicuous consumption" has replaced things like religion and "social class" as a means for determining social status.
  2. A substantial percentage of young people today expect to become rich.
  3. Drinking expensive coffee is a sign of social status.
  4. Just as in the past, we should not expect anything good to come from the "super wealth" of our era.
  5. None of the above are in fact supported or suggested by the article.

11. According to Nicholas Kristof in his article in the readings on China, which of the following, if any, is not true?
  1. By and large, Chinese leaders understand the need for a market economy as opposed to trying to "centrally plan" the entire economy.
  2. Corruption is a major problem in China.
  3. In their effort to put China on a par with the West, the leaders of the Communist Party are willing to share a significant amount of their political power with others.
  4. Market economic forces are having a major impact on Chinese society, including the political system.
  5. All of the above are noted in Kristof's article.

12. Based on the lectures, which of the following, if any, cannot reasonably be considered a strength of "capitalism"?
  1. It encourages innovation.
  2. It insures that a wide range of useful products and services will generally be available­at least to those who can afford them.
  3. When competition is in fact present, it encourages the production of quality products at a fair price.
  4. When all is said and done, pure capitalism does an excellent job of insuring that every citizen gets what he or she truly deserves.
  5. All of the above can reasonably be considered strengths of capitalism.

13. Which of the following, if any, would even a convinced "capitalist" probably acknowledge as a "weakness" of capitalism? Capitalism is guilty of
  1. an excessive emphasis on "private property" and the "profit motive."
  2. an excessive emphasis on "individual rights and liberties" to the determent of the interests of society as a whole.
  3. a tendency to encourage disruptive innovation.
  4. a tendency to encourage the production of "frivolous" products, that is, products that no one really needs, even though people are wiling to buy them.


14. Based on the lectures, which of the following, if any, can reasonably be considered a legitimate strength of "socialism."

  1. It tends to discourage wasteful innovation.
  2. It tends to make it possible for some people to take a "free ride."
  3. In principal at least, socialism aims to promote reasonable equality.
  4. Based on the lecture, none of the above can be considered legitimate strengths of socialism.

15. Based on the lectures, which of the following, if any, can reasonably be considered a legitimate weakness of "socialism."
  1. It is very difficult to promote democracy in a socialist system.
  2. Private enterprise is all but impossible to sustain because of substantial government red tape and excessively high taxes.
  3. It is difficult to keep a substantial number of people from abusing the "safety net" the system provides, for example, in the form of generous unemployment benefits and free medical care.
  4. All of the above are weaknesses of socialism.

16. According to the lectures, which of the following, if any, distinguishes a "dictionary" conservative from a "political" conservative?
  1. A willingness to make significant changes in the political system, provided these changes result in less government involvement.
  2. A willingness to spend substantial amounts on national defense.
  3. A willingness to compromise on major controversial issues.
  4. None of the above distinguishes a "dictionary" from a "political" conservative.

17. Which of the following, if any, distinguishes a "political" liberal from a "political" conservative.
  1. Contemporary or "political" liberals believe that less government is better, while contemporary or "political" conservatives want a strong central government.
  2. Liberals believe that problems frequently can be solved with substantial government involvement, while conservatives tend to believe that government generally is a part of the problem, so that we are better off with less government.
  3. Liberals prefer to emphasize "individual initiative " while conservatives prefer to emphasize "collective action."
  4. All of the above distinguish contemporary or "political" liberals from contemporary or "political" conservatives.

18. According to the lecture, in a democracy which of the following, if any, probably is not true?
  1. As long as the majority is well informed, the rights of minorities are guaranteed to be protected.
  2. Through either formal or informal "checks and balances" it generally is possible to keep one group or individual from monopolizing power.
  3. Individual liberty is generally protected better than in alternative political systems.
  4. All of the above are true.

19. Based on the discussion in class, which of the following, if any, helps to explain why "democracy," for all of its faults, can reasonably be considered "better than the alternatives"?
  1. Democratic countries have superior cultures.
  2. The democratic system, with its political competition, generally makes it possible to identify and respond to problems more effectively than other systems.
  3. A democratic system can eliminate corruption.
  4. Because democratic systems protect civil rights, they can guarantee that, ultimately, only truly workable policies will be adopted by the government and that, because the leaders are chosen through competitive elections, these policies will be fully supported by the public
  5. All of the above help to explain why democracy is better than the alternatives.

20. According to the material presented in class, which of the following is it the least fair to say about "capitalism."?
  1. When genuine competition is present, an "invisible hand" generally guides people to make productive contributions to society­whatever their personal motives may be.
  2. In the real world of capitalism, unrestrained greed does not have to be a significant problem.
  3. When the profit motive is present we generally get better products at lower prices than when it isn't present.
  4. It is possible to argue that the profit motive contributes even more to society than charity.
  5. Capitalists generally have to benefit society in order to succeed.

 

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POS 101 R. R. Pope

Citizens & Governance Spring 2000

3rd EXAM



1. Which of the following, is the least reasonable statement about bureaucracy? Bureaucracy is

  1. always going to be guilty of a degree of inefficiency.
  2. going to tend to grow even if the actual work load doesn't grow.
  3. impossible to adequately control and therefore needs to be eliminated wherever possible.
  4. essential to modern society.

2. Among the reasons for the inefficiency of bureaucracy is/are

  1. the need for "standard operating procedures" which inevitably will not always be appropriate for the problem at hand
  2. the tendency of bureaucrats to "satisfyce."
  3. the tendency of the best people to get frustrated and leave the organization, so that when promotions are made they go to people who aren't always capable of doing the best possible job.
  4. All of the above.

3. Why do many officials regularly request more staff to be added to their agencies?

  1. More staff makes it easier to control an agency.
  2. More people must be hired to keep up with inflation.
  3. Adding more people compensates for the declining efficiency of older workers.
  4. Agency size and growth are part of one's prestige within government.
  5. None of the above.

4. According to Shively, which of the following, if any, is not true of bureaucracy?

  1. Bureaucrats are too numerous and individually too unimportant to be kept entirely under effective political control, even though collectively they have a major impact on policy.
  2. Despite bureaucracy's many problems, including its limited flexibility, in general, government administration compares favorably with the efficiency of private enterprise.
  3. Bureaucracy is particularly good at accurately implementing decisions made by political leaders and at minimizing arbitrary behavior.
  4. According to Shively, all of the above are true.

5. The Peter Principle claims that

  1. bureaucrats tend to rise to the level of their incompetence.
  2. bureaucrats try to hire rivals.
  3. bureaucrats make work for each other.
  4. bureaucracy is highly inefficient.
  5. all of the above

6. At least in part, Parkinson's Law states:

  1. The supervisor will have less work in the long run.
  2. The supervisor will attempt to hire subordinates and not a rival.
  3. In bureaucracies one rises to the level of one's incompetence.
  4. All of the above.

7. According to the Pope Proposal, one way to at least partially deal with some of the problems created by bureaucracy is:

  1. Publicize shortcomings.
  2. Make it easier to demote or fire people doing a poor job.
  3. Help young creative people to learn to deal with "bureaucratic red tape" more effectively.
  4. All of the above.

8. Which of the following, if any, does not qualify as an interest group?

  1. A well organized chess club that tries to persuade local government to support it
  2. A labor organization
  3. Students Against Drunk Driving
  4. The American Medical Association
  5. According to the class discussion all of the above qualify as interest groups.

9. Which of the following would most informed people probably agree is the most exaggerated statement about interest groups?

  1. In general they play a worthwhile role in our democratic system.
  2. They are capable of distorting the democratic process in that they can facilitate the exercise of political influence by unrepresentative minorities.
  3. They almost always have excessive influence on political decision making and therefore should be severely restricted.

10. Which of the following, if any, is the most reasonable to argue?

  1. Interest groups should be severely restricted in order to protect democracy.
  2. Groups capable of providing counter balancing views should be encouraged.
  3. The media should be encouraged to strongly criticize all interest group efforts to influence government and public opinion.
  4. All of the above are equally reasonable to argue.

11. Which of the following is the least exaggerated statement of a legitimate problem associated with the existence of interest groups?

  1. They make it easier for people with radical opinions to make themselves heard.
  2. Groups with a great deal of money can have more influence than they deserve.
  3. So called "public interest groups" always interfere with free enterprise.
  4. Because the general public does not normally pay close attention to specific issues, special interest groups, such as the oil industry or the National Rifle Association, can be counted on to always benefit themselves-and never the general public.

12. According to Shively, which of the following, if any, is not true of interest groups?

  1. Interest groups are probably the main vehicle in most states for representing public opinion and bringing it to bear in an organized (and therefore effective) way on the governmental authorities.
  2. Not all interests are equally well organized.
  3. Some groups command a disproportionate voice in the interest group system because they have special advantages.
  4. Most interest groups are not organized democratically; their leaders are not closely responsive to the members' wishes.
  5. According to Shively, all of the above are true.

13. Interest group politics is best described as

  1. an undesirable means for pursuing narrow interests.
  2. a corrupt form of pressure politics.
  3. a legitimate means for settling conflicting claims in society.
  4. a method for avoiding party politics.

14. Which of the following characteristics is not typical of political interest groups?

  1. A collection of individuals.
  2. Shared attitudes.
  3. Putting forward candidates for public office.
  4. Making claims or demands on others in society.

15. Gerrymander refers to the drawing of election district boundaries in a way that

  1. guarantees that one group will win all the seats available in the next election.
  2. the courts will approve.
  3. unfairly benefits one group over another.
  4. will win the approval of the majority of the voters in the community.
  5. None of the above.


16. "Responsible electorate" refers to

  1. those people who pay enough attention to political issues to be able to vote intelligently.
  2. opinion leaders only.
  3. a theory that supports our founding fathers' assumption that only a limited number of people are well enough informed and have enough of a stake in society to be able to vote "responsibly."
  4. None of the above


17. It can be reasonably argued that

  1. a free press goes hand-in-hand with a democratic--and by implication, a reasonably effective--form of government.
  2. TV doesn't have the time--or at least tends not to take the time--to put campaign charges and counter charges into perspective.
  3. some of the media, especially television, have gotten caught up in the size of the audience, the profits to be made, catering to short attention spans, and seeking the sensational; consequently, they seem to have forgotten something basic--that the media is here to serve the public, to bring them the information they need to make informed judgments.
  4. All of the above can be considered reasonable statements.

18. Even fair competitive elections cannot reasonably be expected to do which of the following ?

  1. Generate public support for the system.
  2. Decide the basic approach society takes, e.g., socialism vs. capitalism.
  3. Decide specific issues, such whether or not to build a new school.
  4. Select the best possible decision makers for the society in almost every case.

19. Among the problems with even basically democratic elections is/are:

  1. The public doesn't always know enough to make a good decision.
  2. Large amounts of money can be spent during the political campaign in ways that can mislead the voters.
  3. So called "negative campaigning" and other efforts to "win at any cost" can obscure the discussion of the important issues.
  4. It can be difficult to persuade well qualified people to run for public office-because of all the costs involved, including the loss of privacy.
  5. All of the above can be considered problems with even democratic elections.


20. In a democracy the media can reasonable be expected to do all but which of the following?

  1. Keep the public fully and accurately informed on all the major political, social, and economic issues facing the society.
  2. Act as a critic of those holding power.
  3. Act as a check on the abuse of power by elected officials, bureaucrats, and interest groups.
  4. Raise issues that need to be discussed.

     


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POS 101 R. R. Pope
Citizens & Governance
Spring 2000

4th Exam

1.According to the lecture, which of the following statements does not apply to the rule of law­or at least is an exaggeration?

  1. It is essential to the success of democracy.
  2. It does not always guarantee "justice."
  3. It has to apply equally to every member of society or it is meaningless.
  4. It cannot readily be applied in every culture; some basic attitudes have to be in place or the rule of law cannot function effectively.
2. According to the "definition" article on the class web site, the rule of law is supposed to prevent
  1. the exercise of power without restraint.
  2. the acquisition of wealth by force.
  3. the majority from ignoring the legitimate rights of individuals.
  4. all of the above.

3. In "The Rule of Law & President Clinton," which of the following, if any, does Rep. Bob Barr not argue?
  1. No man, no matter how prominent and powerful he might be, has a right to defy a court of law.
  2. Even a relatively "low key" effort (vs. a "frontal assault") to obstruct justice is destructive of the rule of law in our country.
  3. If only the evidence was easier to understand, I (Rep. Barr) am confident that the American public would overwhelmingly support the charge against President Clinton of obstruction of justice.
  4. Representative Barr argues all of the above.

4. According to the author of "What Does Rule of Law Mean to a Russian?" the most important factor in making the rule of law work is
  1. respect for individual rights.
  2. predictability.
  3. trust, especially between the public and the government..
  4. respect for the law.

5. Of the following current events, which, if any, least illustrates the importance of the rule of law?
  1. The Elian Gonzalez case.
  2. The Microsoft antitrust case.
  3. The protests against the World Bank and the IMF in Washington, DC.
  4. The massive flooding in China.

6. It can be argued that protecting the civil rights of "unpopular groups"

  1. is generally necessary in order to preserve democracy--a group that is even very unpopular today may turn out to have some good ideas.
  2. might threaten the legitimate rights of the majority in a democratic society--and therefore sufficiently threaten democracy itself--to justify at least somewhat curtailing the rights of truly "dangerous" groups, for example, their right to purchase explosives.
  3. can be difficult to do in practice, for example, the rights of Japanese Americans weren't adequately protected during WW II.
  4. even if important, won't always be done.
  5. all of the above
7. The protection of civil rights
  1. is generally accepted as essential to the preservation of democracy
  2. sometimes creates conflicts between the rights of different groups and individuals
  3. can be dangerously ignored by even the President of the United States
  4. all of the above

8. Civil rights in the United States are
  1. at times difficult to adequately protect
  2. encouraged so that public debate will hopefully drive out bad ideas
  3. at times repressed
  4. bound to create some problems­even though they are essential to democracy
  5. all of the above

9. Most informed people would probably agree it cannot reasonably be argued that, in the area of civil rights,
  1. public preference should always determine government policy.
  2. there are instances where fundamental rights of citizenship are involved which even large popular majorities must not be allowed to infringe upon.
  3. conflicts between the legitimate rights of different groups and individuals are bound to occur.
  4. it is important to protect "unpopular" forms of expression.
10. In "The Opening of the American Mind," the author, Arthur M.. Schlesinger Jr., in effect argues that
  1. a "belief in absolutes" has become a serious problem.
  2. the effort to make a crime of "desecration," for example, of the American flag is badly misguided.
  3. "relativism" as opposed to "absolutism" is the best way to approach political issues.
  4. all of the above


11. Which of the following, if any, cannot be reasonably argued?

  1. It is important to protect the expression of unpopular ideas.
  2. The concern expressed by the former Soviet Union over the material security of the public is not in any way relevant to the issue of "real civil rights."
  3. Western style civil rights are essential if you want reasonably fair and effective political system­the public needs to be able to find out what is going on and needs to be free to criticize.
  4. All of the above.

12. Which of the following, if any, was not given priority under the Communist view of civil rights?
  1. The right to housing.
  2. The right to free medical care.
  3. The right to question the government.
  4. The right to enough to eat.
  5. All of the above fall under the Soviet view of civil rights.

13. Even though it would take away the freedom of everyone who disagrees with it if it had the opportunity, the American Nazi Party
  1. has a right to exist.
  2. in general, has the right to express its views freely.
  3. can be restricted when it is attempting to infringe on the legitimate rights of others.
  4. can be restricted when otherwise legal activity is creating (or might create) a "clear and present danger.
  5. All of the above.

14. Based on the class discussion, which of the following, if any, would the instructor probably consider the least significant problem stemming from the effort to protect civil rights?
  1. Freedom of the press resulting in the media unfairly damaging someone's personal or business reputation.
  2. Small groups promoting their sometimes controversial views through rallies, publications, and the Internet.
  3. Freedom of conscience (religion) resulting in religious cults which end up doing serious harm to their members.
  4. All of the above are equally harmful to society's legitimate interests.

15. Which of the following, if any, is probably not a good way to deal with problems created by the free exercise of civil rights?
  1. Focus on and attempt to curtail activities that clearly infringe on the legitimate rights of others.
  2. Shut down groups that repeatedly create problems for others.
  3. Try to make sure as many people as possible understand the "threats" to society's legitimate interests inherent in the activities of some groups.
  4. All of the above are equally legitimate ways to try to keep some groups and individuals from seriously jeopardizing the legitimate rights of others.
16. It is reasonable to argue that in the type of system America has,
  1. although "justice" is frequently not served, a greater degree of "fairness" has been achieved than in non-democratic systems.
  2. substantial progress has been made in many areas, thus making the system "fairer" today than it was earlier.
  3. it is realistically possible to make significant additional improvements in the system that will make it "fairer" in the future than it is today.
  4. It is reasonable to argue all of the above.

17. As presented in the readings for this course, which of the following, if any, is not suggested by the concept of "power elite"?
  1. He who has the gold will rule.
  2. A small group of "well connected" people generally manages to manipulate the system to their advantage.
  3. Campaign finance reform should do an excellent job of curbing the power of the elite­without the ability to "bribe" elected officials they will have no effective way to exercise their influence.
  4. Connections play an essential role in the elite's exercise of influence.
  5. All of the above are suggested by the readings.

18. According to Machiavelli, in the exercise of effective political power,
  1. good ends can justify evil means.
  2. deceit can be more effective than force in helping a ruler obtain his goals.
  3. a successful ruler should not expect a moderate policy to be effective.
  4. Machiavelli argues all of the above in the selection in the readings for this course.

19. In the article, "Who Rules America Today," G. William Domhoff argues all but which of the following?
  1. The liberal-environmental-labor coalition is too loosely organized in America to be able to effectively challenge the "power elite" in most important situations.
  2. The elite uses its influence in key nonprofit organizations to shape the policy debate in America.
  3. The "power elite" is so effectively entrenched in American society that, unfortunately, it is not likely that its influence can be significantly diminished in the foreseeable future.
  4. The Democratic party may provide a political base from which the "elite" can be effectively challenged in the future.
  5. Domhoff in fact argues all of the above.

20. In his article on the power elite, Alan Neustadtl concludes which of the following?
  1. Equality of representation has been seriously undermined in the American system by the key role money plays in politics.
  2. Serious campaign finance reform should not be difficult to achieve, provided the American public at least moderately supports such change.
  3. Elected officials can readily be persuaded to pay attention to what is best for the country as a whole vs. what is best for the special interests.
  4. Newstadtl in fact concludes all of the above.

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