The McDonald estimates (McD /VEP) are based on the votes cast for
president (excluding Overseas votes), divided by the number of
voting age citizens minus ineligible felons.
The CQ /VAP statistic is the votes cast for president divided by
the voting age population.
The CPS (Current Population Survey) data based on interviews of a
sample of approximately 55,000 households, response rates exceed
The NES data are based on post election surveys of approximately
1,500 persons, with a 50-65% response rates.
McDonald argues that voter turnout has not declined since 1972
when one looks at the turnout as a percent of the voting eligible
population. In recent years the percentage of the voting age
population that is not eligible to vote, due to noncitizenship and
felony status has increased sharply.
National Election Survey
McD /VEP: Michael McDonald
CQ /VAP: Congressional Quarterly Inc. "America
US Statistical Abstract 2002, table 395
CPS /VAP /VAC:
Current Population Survey
Iraq Causalities Budget deficits.